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What is M2M? As is known to all, besides providing more broadband speed and quality, 5G is characterized by the application of the Internet of things (IoT) from the demand and design stage. In order to adapt to different applications, mobile communication technology with no wiring, high coverage and high reusability has become an important...

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The similarities and differences between industrial... 1. definition of industrial 4G router and industrial switch   Industrial 4G router:   Industrial 4G router is a network device responsible for path finding. It provides users with communication by finding the least communication from multiple paths in the interconnection network. Industrial 4G router...

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4g router features of E-lins Technology With the development of new communication technologies and the continuous improvement of network efficiency and function of wireless communication, 4G has been widely used. 4G industrial-grade wireless routers are playing an increasingly important role in the applications of various industries, and the price is getting...

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E-Lins Industrial router applications Industrial-grade routers as Internet network layer communication equipment application in all walks of life, brought a lot of convenience for our industry. "E-Lins" introduce the application of industrial router scenario analysis.   1 The self-service terminal network   E-lins industrial router networking...

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Classification of 4G industrial routers There are many types of 4G industrial routers, which can be divided into different categories from different perspectives. Different types of 4G industrial routers can be used in different environments. The following sections classify the 4G industrial routers from different perspectives. According to the performance From...

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What is M2M?

文章目录 : 技术相关

As is known to all, besides providing more broadband speed and quality, 5G is characterized by the application of the Internet of things (IoT) from the demand and design stage. In order to adapt to different applications, mobile communication technology with no wiring, high coverage and high reusability has become an important carrier.

 

However, there are still considerable difficulties to be solved in the communication between objects, such as how to reduce the impact of a large amount of M2M communication on existing communication networks, and how to avoid increasing the complexity of network operation and maintenance. Therefore, the development of M2M will play an extremely important role in 5G in the future. So what is M2M?

 

I. brief introduction of M2M technology

 

M2M(MachinetoMachine), is the effective control of devices through mobile communication, so as to greatly expand the boundaries of business or create a more efficient way of doing business than the traditional way or create a completely new service completely different from the traditional way. In short, M2M refers to the information exchange and transmission between machines, which achieves the concept of information sharing through the transmission and link of network and communication between machines and devices.

 

In fact, as early as 2002, the concept of M2M business has been proposed, but due to the immature communication technology, the development is still in the enlightenment stage, such as tap water, power company’s automatic meter reading and digital home application. With the rapid development of wireless communication technology, the application of M2M services into the stage of rapid development, in agriculture, industry, public security, urban management, health care, public transportation, and environmental monitoring, can see M2M applications, such as: Integration of smart energy saving, smart car, smart medical care, smart city, smart logistics and other services and applications, very dependent on M2M technology development.

 

II. Application category of M2M

 

Due to the rapid take-off of the Internet of things industry, it is more necessary to integrate the unified and standardized M2M technology. At present, a considerable number of international standards organizations have invested in the research of M2M standardization, including ITU-T, ETSI, IETF, IEEE, 3GPP, OMA, Zigbee and other alliances. According to the research direction and focus of each standard organization, M2M international standard organization can be divided into the overall architecture category, perception extension category, network extension category and business application category. The specific contents of each category are as follows:

 

Overall architecture class

 

M2M business system architecture

Conduct standardized research on M2M requirements, point-to-point architecture, identity analysis, network management and security, etc. Typical standard organizations include ITU-TSG13, ETSITC SmartM2M, OneM2M, CCSATC10, etc.

 

Perceptual extension class

 

Perception layer of M2M module market

Some low transmission rate and short distance wireless communication technologies are standardized, including short distance wireless communication technology, sensor network and telecommunication network fusion, and lightweight IPv6 technology. Typical standard organizations include IEEE802.15, IETF6LoWPAN, CCSATC10, Zigbee alliance, etc.

 

Network communication

 

M2M network communication

The transformation and optimization of M2M hosted network are carried out. Related technologies include the increase of wireless connection network, core network enhancement, environmental awareness, heterogeneous network fusion, etc. Typical standard organizations include itu-t, 3GPP, CCSATC5, IETF, ETSI, etc.

 

Business application class

 

Standardized for enterprise application, public application, cross-enterprise application and application intermediary software platform, the key application fields include smart transportation, smart home, smart power grid, health care, etc. Typical standard organizations include IETF, CCSATS10, ETSI, OGC, etc.

 

III. Industrial application of M2M

 

In the field of application, M2M module technology often combines the sensor to collect information, and through the sensor’s exploration of the unknown environment, the obtained information is transmitted to the device or device, and the available information has been analyzed. In the industry, real-time feedback information can be collected to ensure the quality of products and avoid the failure of equipment parts. According to the desired purpose, the information needed will be probed to improve the accuracy and safety of people’s lives.

 

For example, M2M combined with sensors, applied in industrial process monitoring, can help the machine reduce downtime and timely diagnose potential problems, and provide timely notification and warning in case of failure before affecting the operation of the machine. Improve machine efficiency by monitoring machine performance and making appropriate adjustments. It is also about reducing maintenance costs and increasing the number of devices produced, because you know and react immediately, and you can access information, communicate and calculate at any time.

 

In the factory production process and automation process maintenance, is an indispensable role. Because most of the machines in the factory will inevitably encounter the possibility of defects and loose falls, the process monitoring and adjustment to avoid the machine, because of the loose falls and reduce productivity. Knowledge of information can be gathered through instant messaging in return, and data can be retroactive through access and file creation to facilitate the life cycle of machines and products.

 

IV. Differences between M2M and the Internet of things

 

M2M is a point, or a line. Only when M2M is scaled and popularized, and intelligent integration and communication are realized between each other through the network, can the “Internet of things” be formed. Therefore, the scattered and isolated M2M is not the Internet of things, but the ultimate goal of M2M is the Internet of things. Communication show this year, there are a lot of M2M applications and display, such as China mobile phone wallet and mobile phone power purchase business, China telecom’s “silent e” business, and China unicom “wireless environmental testing platform” business, belong to M2M applications, you can say it is to belong to the category of the concept of Internet of things, but is not the Internet of things. Therefore, to realize the real Internet of things, it needs massive addresses, massive bandwidth and massive storage, as well as extremely high communication intelligence and management intelligence, as well as very perfect regulatory regulations to ensure the feasibility of business.

 

Looking at the current development of M2M, with the development of science and technology, it can be expected that more and more devices have the ability to communicate and network, realize the application of environmental monitoring, environmental analysis and so on, and create Internet of things business opportunities. M2M and the Internet of things will be the focus and direction of future industry development, it will completely change the work and lifestyle of the whole society, the Internet of things is not a dream!

The similarities and differences between industrial 4G router and industrial switch

文章目录 : 技术相关

1. definition of industrial 4G router and industrial switch

 

Industrial 4G router:

 

Industrial 4G router is a network device responsible for path finding. It provides users with communication by finding the least communication from multiple paths in the interconnection network. Industrial 4G router has two typical functions: data channel function and control function. The functions of data channel include forwarding decision, backplane forwarding and output link scheduling, etc. The control function is usually implemented by software, including information exchange, system configuration and system management between the router and the neighboring industry 4G router. Industrial 4G routers are used to connect multiple logically separate networks. The industrial 4G router USES the routing table to select the path for data transmission. The routing table contains the list of network addresses and the distance between each address. The industrial 4G router USES the routing table to find the correct path of the packet from the current location to the destination address. The industrial 4G router USES the least time algorithm or the optimal path algorithm to adjust the path of information transmission. If one network path fails or becomes blocked, the industrial 4G router can choose another path to ensure the normal transmission of information. Industrial 4G routers can convert data formats and become necessary devices for network interconnection between different protocols.

 

Industrial 4G routers use path searching protocol to obtain network information, and use path searching algorithm and criterion based on “path searching matrix” to select the optimal path. According to the OSI reference model, an industrial 4G router is a network layer system. Industrial 4G routers are divided into single-protocol industrial 4G router and multi-protocol industrial 4G router.

 

The Internet is made up of a variety of networks, of which industrial 4G routers are a very important part. Intranet to be incorporated into the Internet and serve as Internet service, industrial 4G router is an indispensable component, and the configuration of industrial 4G router is also relatively complex.

 

Industrial Switch:

 

Industrial switch is a device that expands the network and provides more connection ports for the sub-network to connect more computers. With the development of the communications industry and the advancement of the informatization of the national economy, the network exchange market has been rising steadily. It features high cost ratio, high flexibility, relatively simple and easy to implement. Therefore, Ethernet technology has become the most important LAN networking technology, network switch has become the most popular switch. The switch can be recognized based on MAC address, and can complete the function of packaging and forwarding packet network equipment. An industrial switch can “learn” the MAC address and store it in the internal address table, enabling the data frame to go directly from the source address to the destination address by establishing a temporary switching path between the originator of the data frame and the target receiver. If the network utilization is over 40% and the collision rate is over 10%, the industrial switch can help you solve a few problems. Industrial switches with 100Mbps fast Ethernet and 10Mbps Ethernet ports can run in full duplex mode and can establish dedicated 20Mbps to 200Mbps connections.

 

2. Similarities and differences between industrial 4G routers and industrial switches

 

Similarity

 

(1) “exchange” is a word with a wide range of meanings. When it is used to describe the devices in the second layer of data network, it actually refers to a bridging device; When it is used to describe the third layer of the data network, it refers to a routing device. That is, both industrial switches and industrial 4G routers can be used to exchange network devices, but at different levels.

 

(2) Internet access. It’s all about extending the network.

 

Differences

 

(1) The first industrial switch worked at the OSI/RM open architecture’s data link layer (layer 2), while the industrial 4G router was initially designed to work at the OSI model’s network layer. Since the industrial switch works at the OSI layer 2 (data link layer), it works simpler, while the industrial 4G router works at the OSI layer 3 (network layer), which yields more protocol information, and the industrial 4G router makes smarter forwarding decisions.

 

(2) different industrial switches based on different objects for data forwarding use physical address or MAC address to determine the destination address for data forwarding. Industrial 4G routers, on the other hand, use the ID Numbers (i.e. IP addresses) of different networks to determine the addresses for data forwarding. IP addresses are implemented in software that describe the network on which the device is located, and sometimes these third-tier addresses are also known as protocol addresses or network addresses. MAC addresses are typically hardware-owned, assigned by network card manufacturers, and have been solidified into network CARDS, which are generally immutable. IP addresses are usually assigned automatically by the network administrator or the system.

 

(3) traditional industrial switches can only divide the conflict domain and cannot divide the broadcast domain. Industrial 4G routers can segment broadcast domains. A network segment connected by an industrial switch still belongs to the same broadcast domain, and broadcast packets are spread across all network segments connected by an industrial switch, in some cases leading to communications advocacy and security vulnerabilities. Network segments connected to industrial 4G routers are assigned different broadcast domains, and broadcast data does not pass through industrial 4G routers.

 

Although the industrial switch above the third layer has VLAN function and can divide the broadcast domain, the communication between sub-broadcast domains is not possible, and the communication between them still needs the industrial 4G router.

 

(4) industrial 4G routers provide firewall services, which only forward packets of specific addresses, do not transmit packets that do not support routing protocol, and the transmission of target network packets for knowledge, thus preventing broadcast storms.

4g router features of E-lins Technology

文章目录 : 产品文章

With the development of new communication technologies and the continuous improvement of network efficiency and function of wireless communication, 4G has been widely used. 4G industrial-grade wireless routers are playing an increasingly important role in the applications of various industries, and the price is getting cheaper and cheaper. Currently, there are a lot of optional devices in the market, so how to choose one that can guarantee long-term use, stability and reliability, and affordable price is the problem that customers think about the most. The following is a specific selection reference for the 4G industrial wireless router of E-lins technology.

 

I. Industrial-grade design

1. Adopt high-performance industrial-grade 32-bit processor and adopt qualcomm chip, the world’s top wireless solution, with high processing speed, low power consumption, low heat output, strong compatibility and more stable, which can meet the requirement of 365 days a year, 7*24 hours long and stable operation without dropping the line.

2. Adopt high-performance industrial-grade communication module and high-quality communication module of huawei and other first-tier brands, with strong reception ability, stable signal and faster transmission.

The operating system uses OpenWRT, a highly modular, highly automated embedded Linux system, which makes the device more stable, has a large capacity of Flash and memory, and can support the requirements of customized development. High quality PCB circuit boards are manufactured with high quality materials and high standard. Stable industrial components are used for product components. All the machines are automated to realize patch production, ensuring the stability and reliability of the products. The power supply adopts wide voltage design to support dc5v-40v, with built-in anti-phase protection and over-voltage and over-current protection of the power supply, which can withstand the impact of instantaneous high voltage and current. Ethernet USES gigabit network port, built-in electromagnetic protection Ethernet interface built-in 1.5kv electromagnetic isolation protection, gigabit network port, faster transmission speed. The shell with strong anti-interference ability adopts thickened metal shell, shielding electromagnetic interference, and the equipment protection grade IP34, which is suitable for use in harsh industrial environment.

 

II. Powerful function

 

Multi-mode multi-card, load balancing

Expand network equipment and server bandwidth, increase throughput, enhance network data processing capacity, and improve network flexibility and availability.

 

Support global network formats

Support 2G, 3G and 4G networks of the three major domestic operators, or support Europe, southeast Asia, Africa, Latin America and other countries.

 

Support wired wireless backup

WAN port and LAN port can be flexibly switched to support wired and wireless backup of WAN port, with wired priority and wireless backup.

 

Serial transmission

Support simultaneous RS 232/485 serial port transmission.

 

Support APN/VPDN special network card, support a variety of VPN support APN/VPDN special network card use, at the same time support PPTP, L2TP, Ipsec, OpenVPN, GRE and other VPN.

 

Powerful WIFI function

WIFI supports 802.11b/g/n, WIFI AP, AP Client, repeater, relay bridge, WDS and other working modes, 802.11ac, or 5.8g (optional).

 

Support IP penetration function can achieve the IP address of the host IP obtained for the router, which is equivalent to the host directly plugging in the card to dial up the Internet to obtain the IP of the base station.

 

VLAN virtual LAN division through the division of VLAN, enhance the security of the LAN, VLAN technology, can be different locations, different networks, different users together, forming a virtual network environment. Support QOS, bandwidth speed limit support different network port bandwidth speed limit, IP speed limit, total bandwidth speed limit. Support DHCP, DDNS, firewalls, NAT and the function such as DMZ host support ICMP, TCP, UDP, Telnet, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS and network protocol support time to restart, SMS control, GPS/beidou positioning function (optional), support M2M cloud platform management, mobile monitoring and WEB monitoring, device data monitoring, traffic limit function, push resources, statistics, the remote device management (remote restart, WiFi switch), remote parameter modification, traffic restrictions, GPS tracking trajectory.

 

III. stable and reliable

1. Support hardware WDT watchdog, provide anti-dropping mechanism, and ensure that the data terminal is always online.

2. Support ICMP detection and traffic detection, automatically restart the equipment if network abnormality is found in time to ensure the stability and reliability of the system in long-term use.

3. Industrial-grade design, metal shell, anti-interference, anti-radiation, 95% humidity, no condensation, high temperature and low temperature resistance, minus 30 degrees to 75 degrees high temperature can work normally.

4. Our products have passed CCC certification, European CE certification and other certifications

 

Simple operation, easy to use

1. Simple Internet access, push-stick user card interface, insert mobile phone card/Internet of things card/special network card, and you can use the network port and WIFI after power on.

2. Support software and hardware to restore factory Settings, software can clear parameters, hardware RST one-key to restore factory Settings.

3. Product quick operation manual, WEB menu-type page, can quickly set up the device for use.

4. Diagnostic tools: log download and view, remote log record, ping detection, route tracking, easy to detect device information.

E-Lins Industrial router applications

文章目录 : 技术相关

Industrial-grade routers as Internet network layer communication equipment application in all walks of life, brought a lot of convenience for our industry. “E-Lins” introduce the application of industrial router scenario analysis.

 

1 The self-service terminal network

 

E-lins industrial router networking facilitates the wireless networking and remote management of self-service terminals. Operations can be self-service equipment such as self-help harvest home, machines, payment terminal layout to any area of the wireless network coverage, such as shopping malls, neighborhood, community, etc., a substantial increase in business volume.

 

2 The smart grid remote video monitoring

 

Remote video monitoring system has been widely used in intelligent monitoring of transmission lines. The system carries out remote real-time video monitoring of transmission lines, towers and transmission substation of transmission lines. The collected real-time video image information can be transmitted to the management center through the link of industrial wireless router. Real-time monitoring of transmission line state, enhance the level of the lean production management.

 

3 Management of public bicycle in traffic areas

 

Public bike rental system includes management center, customer service sites, bike rental sites of three parts. Industrial router applications in the center of the management of communication management system, through the network operators, box rental management system with the background data forwarding, intelligent parking system and settlement system of data transmission, transfer, and the data transmission function with the other application systems.

 

4 Remote audio-video monitoring of driver’s license test

 

In order to effectively prevent accidents, control the source of safety management and regulate the driver’s license examination, the traffic management bureau of the ministry of public security has been successively implemented in various places to strengthen the management guidance of motor vehicle drivers. Cameras are installed on the driver’s license examination vehicles, and connected with the rear platform through 4G industrial router. The subjects of the driver’s test of automobiles are subject to video and audio monitoring. Print 3 randomly captured test photos on the test report card of each subject, and the test video will be kept for more than 1 year.

 

5 WIFI bus

 

WIFI bus is an important part of wisdom city. Routers through 4 g in the car industry, will be on the way of the 3 g / 4 g mobile communication base station emission signal into stable quality of network signals (such as wi-fi signals), micro letter can easily meet car passengers chat, on QQ, local news, download the APP and other mobile Internet lifestyle. Can fully support all the bus company and scheduling, scheduling, statistical analysis and other business needs; Can also support the bus video image transmission of the monitoring system, once the vehicle accident or emergency, video monitoring system can start immediately, will video transmission to the rear of the console for emergency response and scheduling platform center.

 

6 Intelligent express delivery cabinet

 

The intelligent express delivery cabinet connects and interacts with the central management platform via the operator’s 3G/4G wireless network through wireless router to realize remote management and monitoring. And through the VPN and VPDN, realize the security of the data transmission. Send and receive express real-time, liberate the workforce, the center server for data processing and integration, realizing data sharing, in order to ensure real-time and efficient express business. Real time control of the terminal all express ark centralized remote management, operation condition, reduce operating costs, improve service quality.

 

7 Equipment remote monitoring

 

Using 4 g industrial router to establish a system of numerical control machine tool remote fault diagnosis is to CNC machine tool fault diagnosis technology and the INTERNET of wireless communication technology, the combination of establishing monitoring on nc machine tools, its running status data, and in the center of the enterprise local area network and the INTERNET to establish expert diagnosis and analysis of CNC machine running status diagnosis. It can make fault diagnosis is more flexible and convenient, and can effectively improve the diagnostic accuracy and work efficiency, reduce maintenance time.

 

The industrial wireless router has become a magical device in the field of Internet of things M2M due to its fast transmission rate and strong stability.

Classification of 4G industrial routers

文章目录 : 技术相关

There are many types of 4G industrial routers, which can be divided into different categories from different perspectives. Different types of 4G industrial routers can be used in different environments. The following sections classify the 4G industrial routers from different perspectives.

According to the performance

From the perspective of performance, 4G industrial routers can be divided into linear router and non-linear router.

The so-called wire speed router can transmit freely according to the transmission medium bandwidth, basically without discontinuity and delay. The specific calculation method is the same as that of the switch line speed backplane bandwidth. A wire-speed router is a high-end router with very high port bandwidth and data forwarding capability that forwards packets at the media rate.

Non-wire-speed routers are mid – to low-end routers, but some new wire-access routers also have wire-speed capabilities. The performance of router is mainly affected by CPU performance. If the CPU performance is high, the 4G industrial router is more likely to be a high-performing wire-speed router.

Speed is generally not a measure of a router, and data throughput is one of the references used to measure a router’s maximum data throughput. The routers with the capacity of the rear plates of 4G industrial routers greater than 40Gbps are called high-grade routers. The routers with the capacity of the rear plates between 25Gbps and 40Gbps are called midrange routers, while those with the capacity lower than 25Gbps are considered as low-grade routers. This kind of dividing way is not so absolute, specific parameter needs to make distinguishing according to each manufacturer specific parameter.

According to the structure of the points

The 4G industrial router can be divided into modular router and non-modular router according to the structure Angle.

Modular routing generally only provides basic routing function when leaving the factory. Its interface type and partial extension function are configured according to the actual needs of users. Users can choose corresponding modules according to the network type they need to connect. Different modules can also provide different connectivity and management capabilities. For example, the vast majority of modular routers allow users to choose network interfaces, VPNS, firewalls and other functions, most of which are modular routers.

Routers H685/H700/H720/H750/H820/H820Q/H820QO  from E-Lins are all modular router, can meet the requirements from all over the world.

Non-modular routers are mostly low-end routers, which are mostly used in civilian environments. Primarily used to connect small business customers within homes or isps, supporting virtual private network protocols such as SLIP, PPP, PPTP, and IPSec. These protocols to run on each port, such as ADSL will increase home broadband availability, which will increase the burden of accessing routers. In the future, such router ports will run multiple protocols while avoiding the telephone switched network.

According to the function points

The 4G industrial router is divided into general router and special router. The common civilian router is the general router, that is, the router that can normally use the routing function under the general environment, and there is no other special requirement scenario.

The special router optimizes the routing interface, hardware and so on to realize a certain function. For example, the foreign trade special router changes the local IP through the special router, which can also quickly access some foreign trade stations in China, which is more convenient.

According to the interface points

4G industrial routers can support SDH stm-1 interface, SDH stm-4 interface and SDH stm-16 interface. At present, the router supporting SDH stm-64 interface is high-end 4G industrial router. However, other interfaces are relatively weak, among which stm-1 has two types of optical interface and electrical interface. Stm-1 electrical interface is suitable for local situations where the interference signal is weak. The light interface is usually used for stm-4, stm-16 and stm-64.

according to the perspective of the object of use

The 4G industrial routers can be divided into core router (core level), distribution router (enterprise level) and access router (home level) according to the perspective of the object of use.

The core router, which is the router that forwards packets to the host computer in the network (but not between networks), is the key device to realize Interner network interconnection with other levels of routers. Often used by telecom operators or isps. The throughput of core router is larger, and the requirement of speed and reliability is higher. In order to obtain high reliability, the network system generally adopts traditional redundant technology such as hot backup, dual power supply and dual data path, so that the reliability of backbone router is not a problem.

Distributed routers are used to connect multiple logically separate networks because there are many connected objects, the system is relatively simple, and the data traffic is relatively small. In addition to connecting different networks, distribution routers also need to choose smooth and rapid short-cuts to improve the communication speed, reduce the network communication load, save system resources while improving the unimpeded rate, and maximize the benefit of the network system.

The access router is mainly used for network interconnection in the small local area network. It is often used in the case of small area and simple network environment such as home, small enterprise or net bar.

Dual SIM Router vs. Dual Radio Router

文章目录 : 技术相关

Projects are looking to save their enterprises time and money ask us this very often: “When would I need to use dual SIMs, and in what situations should I consider dual radio dual sim router?”

In order to make this clear, let’s take a quick look at the dual SIM and dual SIM dual radio module functionality.

Dual SIM

With two SIM cards inserted into one E-Lins H700/H720/H750/H900 Router, the radio still only connects to one active SIM at a time, the other SIM will work as backup link. Simply speaking, one SIM as main, the other as backup. Two SIMs will not be online at the same time.

Dual-SIM functionality allows you to switch two carriers on the fly at a store location. Let’s say you’ve configured a router and inserted two active SIMs on two different carriers into the router, then sent it into the field for deployment. The IT professional in charge of installation performs site surveys on SIM A and SIM B.

Based on the results, your installer will switch to the carrier that is providing the best network experience at that location. Then he or she can deactivate the other SIM, ensuring the company is only charged for one cellular data plan at a time.

Dual Radio Module

Dual Radio Module — accomplished with dual radio module router— allow you to connect two carriers at the same time, which provides multiple benefits, such as you can choose one carrier work as primary and the other work as secondary; SIM A work and go pass the data first, meanwhile SIM B work standby and it will switch to SIM B when SIM A link failed, which will ensure the whole cellular link always be online.

Failover / WAN Redundancy

The ability to connect to two carriers at the same time is the only way to provide cellular-to-cellular failover — which can be beneficial in many situations and is the only option for WAN link redundancy for M2M&IoT networking. The automatic switch from one carrier to the other occurs in a few seconds. Also, both radio modules can be active at the same time, allowing for more bandwidth.

At locations where wired-line connectivity is available, some end-users use dual radio to further enhance their failover by utilizing three carriers at once. For example, they might use wired-wan via xDSL and two different cellular SIMs to provide “three-nines” connectivity.

Additionally, a router with a dual radio offers additional bandwidth during high-usage times when using load balance or sim bonding feature, which two features are very often seen in dual radio dual sim router.

Let me summary the key points of when to use dual radio dual sim router for you:
1)When you want to connect two different ISP/carrier.
2)When you want to use two ISP/carrier’s cellular failover.
3)When you want to use load balance or SIM bonding to enhance your bandwidth

E-Lins Technology Co., Limited owns H700/H720/H750 3 series excellent dual radio dual sim routers which are on hot-selling worldwide, so when your cases or projects are in need of dual radio dual sim, you can freely contact with E-Lins Technology Co., Limited.

工业路由器NBMA网络转化为点到点的链路

文章目录 : 产品文章

当我们使用点到点子接口将NBMA网络转化为点到点的链路时,整个NBMA网络将产生过多的PVC部分互联或全互联的网状结构,但这将产生一定的负面影响,会使网络中产生大量的LSP泛洪流量。我们都知道,运行IS-IS的工业路由器当接收到一个LSP报文后,会将此LSP从除接收接口以外的所有启用了IS-IS协议的接口泛洪出去,以使网络中的其他工业路由器都可以接收到此LSP。但是这种泛洪机制对于存在大量部分互联或全互联的网络将产生过多冗余的LSP扩散。

所谓全互联或全网状网络拓扑,是指所有工业路由器都与其他工业级无线路由器向连接(通常是点到点子接口)。在这样的一个网络中,当一台路由器从某接口收到邻居泛洪过来的LSP后,由于它并不知道这个LSP是否已经被其他邻居工业4g路由器收到,所以会再从其他接口泛洪出去,即使其他工业级4g路由器的链路状态数据库中已经存在这个LSP。如果网络中有n个全网路由器的话,那么网络中的每台工业级LTE路由器都会扩散n-2条冗余的LSP,这样总共被泛洪的多余的LSP将为(n-1)x(n-2),条而这些LSP的扩散是多余。如果每台工业全网通路由器都刷新一条LSP的话,那么这个数量还将会成倍数的增长,导致了大量带宽资源的浪费。

为了解这种在全互联或高度互联的网络中出现的LSP泛洪的冗余现象,IS-IS提供了一种解决方案——IS-IS全通组,也称作Mesh组。IS-IS全通组在RFC2973中进行了定义。所谓全通组,就是假设所有工业3G路由器之间都是完全互联的,每个工业级全网通路由器都会直接收到其他全网通工业级路由器泛洪的原始的LSP的拷贝。

可以将全网工业路由器的接口加入到某个全通组中,一个全网通工业路由器上可以存在多个全通组,全通组内接口之间的LSP泛洪是受限制的,全通组之间的LSP泛洪是正常的操作,未加入全通组的工业级3G路由器接口与全通组之间也是正常的LSP泛洪操作。全网通路由器  无线路由器

工业路由器使用CSNP来保证链路状态数据库的完整性

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在广播网络中,工业路由器使用CSNP来保证链路状态数据库的完整性,并且只有DIS才会发送工业全网通路由器CSNP报文,DIS发送CSNP报文的间隔为10s。CSNP报文中描述了DIS的链路状态数据库中所有工业级3G路由器LSP的摘要信息。当其他工业级路由器收到DIS发送的CSNP后,会使用CSNP中的LSP摘要信息与与本地的链路状态数据库中的LSP进行比较,进行比较的目的是确定本地链路状态数据库中的信息是否已经同步和完整。如果工业级4g路由器发现本地数据库中缺少某个LSP条目,那么它将使用PSNP向DIS请求这个缺少的LSP条目。这个PSNP报文中包含就是请求的LSP条目的摘要信息。当DIS收到其他全网路由器发送的PSNP报文后,将会发送一个完整的LSP报文,这个LSP就是其他工业无线路由器所缺少的LSP条目。在广播网络中,DIS使用周期性的CSNP报文向网络中发送同步链路状态数据库的信号,而其他工业4g路由器使用PSNP报文来请求缺少的LSP条目。

在IS-IS的点到点类型的网络中,链路状态数据库同步的操作与广播网络中略有不同,而且工业级全网通路由器发送CSNP与PSNP报文的方式和其作用也有一些差别。

在点到点网络中不存在DIS,工业3G路由器不会周期性的发送CSNP报文,CSNP报文只在链路链路被激活时发送一次,而且链路两端的工业级4g路由器都会发送CSNP报文以描述本地链路状态数据库中所有LSP的摘要信息。当工业路由器发送对端发送的CSNP中含有本地缺少的LSP信息时,也会使用PSNP报文向对端请求LSP。当对端收到PSNP报文后,将向请求方发送包含完整LSP信息的LSP报文,这点上与广播网络中的操作是相同的。但是在点到点链路上,收到LSP报文的工业4g路由器还会向对方再次发送一个PSNP报文以对之前收到的LSP进行确认。可以说,在点到点网络中的LSP交换是可靠的。这点与广播网络不同,在广播网络中工业级无线路由器不使用PSNP报文对收到的LSP进行确认,而是通过DIS周期性地发送CSNP报文以弥补广播网络中不可靠的LSP交换。

在点到点链路上,工业路由器使用PSNP对收到的LSP报文进行确认,所以在点到点链路上是可靠的泛洪机制。

IS-IS路由协议支持两种网络类型:广播链路和点到点链路。默认情况下,全网通工业级路由器IS-IS将广播网络和NBMA网络看作是广播类型。对于封装了PPP或HDCL等协议的链路看作是点到点类型。对于NBMA网络中的主接口和点到多点子接口,IS-IS将其看作是广播类型;对于NBMA网络中的点到点子接口,将其看作是点到点类型。IS-IS不像OSPF那样,提供了对NBMA网络(例如Frame-Relay、ATM)的专门支持。对于NBMA网络,全网通工业路由器IS-IS认为其网络拓扑是PVC全互联(mesh)的,就是把它看作广播网络。但如果实际网络拓扑中并不是PVC全互联的结构时,例如部分互联的结构和Hub-Spoke结构,推荐使用点到点类型网络,即使用点到点子接口,以免造成NBMA网络中的链路状态数据库同步出现问题。无线路由器

工业级路由器LSP校验和(Checksum)

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工业路由器生成一个LSP后,为了保证LSP中信息的完整性,它将对LSP进行校验和计算,然后封装进LSP的LSP校验和字段(checksum)。校验和的计算包括从LSP中的剩余时间字段之后的字段一直到数据包的末尾,由于剩余时间是一个不断变化的字段,所以校验和计算将不包括这部分内容。校验和主要用于检查被破坏的LSP或者还没有从网络中清除的过期LSP。当一台工业4g路由器收到一个LSP,在将该LSP放入到本地链路数据库和将其再泛洪给其他邻接工业3G路由器之前,会重新计算LSP的校验和,如果校验和与LSP中携带的校验和不一致,则说明此全网通工业级路由器LSP传输过程中已经被破坏。

当工业路由器收到了一个被破坏的LSP后,会采取一个清除的操作。它将该LSP的剩余时间设置为0然后再泛洪到网络中。当网络中的其他工业LTE路由器收到这个剩余时间被置为0的LSP后,会将其本地链路状态数据库中相应的LSP清除。当产生这个被破坏的LSP的源双卡路由器收到这个剩余时间被置为0的LSP并发现这个LSP是自己生成的后,会重新生成一个正确的LSP然后泛洪到网络中。

IS-IS的这种LSP清除操作虽然可以有效的清除网络中被破坏的LSP,给运行工业级4G路由器IS-IS路由协议的网络提供了一种自动修复的能力,但是它也带来了一种负面的影响。如果网络中的介质存在问题,就有可能产生LSP被连续破坏的现象。这些被破坏的LSP会被路由器不断的清除,同时源工业无线路由器也会不断的重新生成新的LSP,这种现象被称为LSP破坏风暴。LSP破坏风暴将消耗大量的网络资源。我们可以对工业级无线路由器进行配置,使其在收到被破坏的LSP后忽略它,即丢弃被破坏的LSP,从而启动清除操作。在后续工业级全网通路由器IS-IS配置章节中将介绍具体的配置方法。

标签:4g路由器    4g DTU

伊林思:中间系统类型工业4G路由器(ISType)

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在LSP报头中最后一个字节的中间系统类型(ISType)位占2bit,工业4G路由器的类型。该字段表示了此LSP是来自L1工业路由器还是L2工业级路由器。这也表示了收到此LSP的工业路由器将把这个LSP放到L1链路状态数据库还是L2链路状态数据库。该2bit中01表示L1;11表示L2;00与10未使用。

DIS和伪节点【4g路由器

LSPID中包括一部分称为伪节点标识符(PseudonodeID),用来标识此LSP是否是由网络中的指定中间系统(DIS,DesignatedIntermediateSystem)为网络产生的伪节点LSP。

在广播类型的网络(LAN)中,IS-IS需要为每个网段选择一个指定中间系统DIS,这里的指定中间系统DIS的作用与OSPF中的指定工业级路由器DR的非常相似。在OSPF网络中,DR用来负责将链路状态信息泛洪到每个非DR工业路由器,并且帮助其进行链路状态数据库的同步。在IS-IS中也是如此,为了使链路状态信息更加准确和实时的同步给网络中的所有全网路由器,并且要减小带宽的利用率和路由器的处理开销,IS-IS也要在广播网络中选举出一个工业级无线路由器(DIS)来达到这个目的。

在IS-IS中选举DIS的过程也是非常简单的。每个运行IS-IS协议的全网通路由器的接口都拥有一个优先级(Priority),默认的优先级为64,同样也可以通过命令手工修改默认的优先级。工业4g路由器之间发送的HelloPDU中将携带接口的优先级信息。每个工业LTE路由器收到网络中其他工业级LTE路由器发送的HelloPDU后,通过比较优先级来进行DIS的选举。优先级数值越大的工业全网路由器将被选举为此网段的DIS。这里与OSPF不同的是,在OSPF中,如果接口的优先级为0,那么这台工业级全网通路由器将被认为没有资格成为此网段的DR。在IS-IS中,如果接口的优先级为0,这仅仅表示最低的优先级,但是此工业级4G路由器还拥有成为DIS的资格。当两台工业全网通路由器的接口优先级相同时,那么拥有更大的SNPA(在LAN中通常为MAC地址)的接口的工业级全网通路由器将成为DIS。在OSPF中如果优先级相同将比较RouterID。

在OSPF中,选举完DR后,还将选举出一个备份DR,BDR(BackupDR),以用来在原先DR出现故障时接替新的DR角色,并重新选举出BDR。但在IS-IS中,将不进行备份DIS的选举。如果DIS出现故障了,其他全网通工业路由器将会重新选举出一个DIS。其次,在OSPF中,DR和BDR的选举是非抢占模式的,也就是说当有更优优先级的路由器加入到现有网络中后,也不会抢占原先DR和BDR的角色。从某种意义上来讲,在OSPF网络中,第一台启动的双卡路由器将成为网络的DR,第二台启动的双路路由器将将成为BDR。与OSPF相比,DIS的选举是抢占的,即当有更优DIS资格双路路由器加入网络后,它会成为网络中新的DIS。这样,每次DIS的变更必须泛洪一组新的LSP。

默认情况下,运行IS-IS的双卡路由器将以每10s的间隔发送HelloPDU。但是对于一个DIS来说,由于它在网络中起到重要的作用,所以它发送HelloPDU的间隔的频率将是其他路由器的3倍,也就是说DIS以每3.3s的间隔发送HelloPDU。这样其他全网通工业路由器可以迅速检测出DIS出现故障并开始新的选举过程,增加了网络的收敛速度。无线路由器