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Application analysis of iot sensing technology   The Internet of things (iot) is widely used in the integration of networks through intelligent perception, recognition technology, pervasive computing and other communication perception technologies. The iot is understood as "Internet connected by things". The Internet of things (iot) connects all objects with...


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Application analysis of iot sensing technology

Category : 其他


The Internet of things (iot) is widely used in the integration of networks through intelligent perception, recognition technology, pervasive computing and other communication perception technologies. The iot is understood as “Internet connected by things”. The Internet of things (iot) connects all objects with the Internet through information sensing devices such as Angle sensor, radio frequency identification (rfid) and infrared sensor, so as to realize intelligent identification and management. It is another information industry revolution following the computer, Internet and mobile communication network. Among them, sensor technology is one of the key technologies of the Internet of things.


Iot sensing applications


1. Intelligent traffic


Intelligent transportation is a service system for transportation based on modern electronic information technology. Its prominent feature is the main line of information collection, processing, release, exchange, analysis and utilization, providing diversified services for traffic participants.


In intelligent transportation, the sensing technology of the Internet of things is utilized, such as ETC(Electronic Toll Collection), automatic Electronic Toll Collection, traffic monitoring system and traffic flow Collection system. ETC system, also known as no-stop toll collection system, completes the long-distance identification and charge calculation of vehicles through the RFID tags installed on vehicles and the RFID system and transmission system installed at toll stations. The traffic monitoring system mainly USES the numerous cameras throughout the urban roads to collect the video signal of road vehicles, and determines the dredged road section through the judgment and control of the command center. The traffic flow acquisition system can calculate and calculate the traffic flow by installing a ground sensor coil in some major sections or intersections, and provide a real-time and effective reference for the road capacity and traffic condition.


2. Intelligent factory


The purpose of reasonable allocation and use of resources, energy saving, reduction of machine loss and production safety can be achieved through reasonable scheduling and use of equipment such as monitoring of power consumption of plant equipment, monitoring of equipment operation status and monitoring of main indexes and parameters of equipment.


The construction of intelligent factory can use the intelligent interface in the original equipment to output the tested data. We only need to add the iot terminal in the periphery of the output for data transmission and processing. When the device does not contain the sensor or sensing data we need, the device can also be equipped with sensors, such as real-time power of the device, operating temperature of the device, whether the device is running, vibration of the device and other parameters. As long as the management of the required data, can be obtained through the sensor, through the collection and processing of a lot of data, to achieve the purpose of reasonable scheduling and use.


3. Intelligent logistics


Intelligent logistics is to realize the whole-process management of goods from warehouse to users through bar code technology, RFID technology and Internet of things application development technology.


After the production of any commodity, there is the information of the commodity itself, which can be stored in the form of bar code and RFID tag. In the circulation of goods, these information can be read by scanning gun or RFID card reader, etc. By reading the information in the circulation of goods, we can completely track the location of goods, until the goods have been circulated to the hands of consumers, the process is terminated. In large factories, transportation groups, large supermarkets, shopping malls and other places, the intelligent logistics system can facilitate the whole-process tracking of goods, managers can know the location and status of goods at any time, and provide reliable guarantee for the efficient circulation of goods and rational allocation of resources.


Modern agriculture


The information of temperature and humidity, gas content and illumination are detected by various agricultural environmental sensors to provide reference for agricultural production, and control equipment of water, fertilizer and gas is used to increase production and ensure production.


Sensors for agricultural environment include air temperature and humidity sensor, moisture content sensor, soil temperature sensor, gas content sensor (CO, CO, NH, etc.), light intensity sensor, etc. In the application of the Internet of things, these sensors at the terminals collect field data, which are transmitted and processed in the background to judge and publish the temperature, humidity, moisture content, gas content and light intensity, so as to achieve the purpose of intelligent management and intelligent control of the growing environment of crops.


5. Smart home


Intelligent household also called smart home, based on residential platform, using the integrated wiring technology, network communication technology, security technology, automatic control technology, audio and video technology to integrate the household life related facilities, schedule to build efficient residential facilities and family affairs management system, improve home security, convenience, comfort, artistry, and realize environmental protection and energy saving living environment.


Iot sensing technology is widely used in smart home, such as ambient temperature, humidity, door and window switch state, whether someone broke into, light control, air conditioning control, etc. In addition, in the new home appliances have integrated some reserved control functions, such as haier has in its leaves in a new generation of intelligent home appliances control interface, together with other can detect and control devices, Internet of things intelligent household system, these systems detected data, the data can be uploaded to the platform, and through the Internet or mobile WAP, very convenient to realize the host within the home environment and all the equipment control purposes.

The similarities and differences between industrial 4G router and industrial switch

Category : 技术相关

1. definition of industrial 4G router and industrial switch


Industrial 4G router:


Industrial 4G router is a network device responsible for path finding. It provides users with communication by finding the least communication from multiple paths in the interconnection network. Industrial 4G router has two typical functions: data channel function and control function. The functions of data channel include forwarding decision, backplane forwarding and output link scheduling, etc. The control function is usually implemented by software, including information exchange, system configuration and system management between the router and the neighboring industry 4G router. Industrial 4G routers are used to connect multiple logically separate networks. The industrial 4G router USES the routing table to select the path for data transmission. The routing table contains the list of network addresses and the distance between each address. The industrial 4G router USES the routing table to find the correct path of the packet from the current location to the destination address. The industrial 4G router USES the least time algorithm or the optimal path algorithm to adjust the path of information transmission. If one network path fails or becomes blocked, the industrial 4G router can choose another path to ensure the normal transmission of information. Industrial 4G routers can convert data formats and become necessary devices for network interconnection between different protocols.


Industrial 4G routers use path searching protocol to obtain network information, and use path searching algorithm and criterion based on “path searching matrix” to select the optimal path. According to the OSI reference model, an industrial 4G router is a network layer system. Industrial 4G routers are divided into single-protocol industrial 4G router and multi-protocol industrial 4G router.


The Internet is made up of a variety of networks, of which industrial 4G routers are a very important part. Intranet to be incorporated into the Internet and serve as Internet service, industrial 4G router is an indispensable component, and the configuration of industrial 4G router is also relatively complex.


Industrial Switch:


Industrial switch is a device that expands the network and provides more connection ports for the sub-network to connect more computers. With the development of the communications industry and the advancement of the informatization of the national economy, the network exchange market has been rising steadily. It features high cost ratio, high flexibility, relatively simple and easy to implement. Therefore, Ethernet technology has become the most important LAN networking technology, network switch has become the most popular switch. The switch can be recognized based on MAC address, and can complete the function of packaging and forwarding packet network equipment. An industrial switch can “learn” the MAC address and store it in the internal address table, enabling the data frame to go directly from the source address to the destination address by establishing a temporary switching path between the originator of the data frame and the target receiver. If the network utilization is over 40% and the collision rate is over 10%, the industrial switch can help you solve a few problems. Industrial switches with 100Mbps fast Ethernet and 10Mbps Ethernet ports can run in full duplex mode and can establish dedicated 20Mbps to 200Mbps connections.


2. Similarities and differences between industrial 4G routers and industrial switches




(1) “exchange” is a word with a wide range of meanings. When it is used to describe the devices in the second layer of data network, it actually refers to a bridging device; When it is used to describe the third layer of the data network, it refers to a routing device. That is, both industrial switches and industrial 4G routers can be used to exchange network devices, but at different levels.


(2) Internet access. It’s all about extending the network.




(1) The first industrial switch worked at the OSI/RM open architecture’s data link layer (layer 2), while the industrial 4G router was initially designed to work at the OSI model’s network layer. Since the industrial switch works at the OSI layer 2 (data link layer), it works simpler, while the industrial 4G router works at the OSI layer 3 (network layer), which yields more protocol information, and the industrial 4G router makes smarter forwarding decisions.


(2) different industrial switches based on different objects for data forwarding use physical address or MAC address to determine the destination address for data forwarding. Industrial 4G routers, on the other hand, use the ID Numbers (i.e. IP addresses) of different networks to determine the addresses for data forwarding. IP addresses are implemented in software that describe the network on which the device is located, and sometimes these third-tier addresses are also known as protocol addresses or network addresses. MAC addresses are typically hardware-owned, assigned by network card manufacturers, and have been solidified into network CARDS, which are generally immutable. IP addresses are usually assigned automatically by the network administrator or the system.


(3) traditional industrial switches can only divide the conflict domain and cannot divide the broadcast domain. Industrial 4G routers can segment broadcast domains. A network segment connected by an industrial switch still belongs to the same broadcast domain, and broadcast packets are spread across all network segments connected by an industrial switch, in some cases leading to communications advocacy and security vulnerabilities. Network segments connected to industrial 4G routers are assigned different broadcast domains, and broadcast data does not pass through industrial 4G routers.


Although the industrial switch above the third layer has VLAN function and can divide the broadcast domain, the communication between sub-broadcast domains is not possible, and the communication between them still needs the industrial 4G router.


(4) industrial 4G routers provide firewall services, which only forward packets of specific addresses, do not transmit packets that do not support routing protocol, and the transmission of target network packets for knowledge, thus preventing broadcast storms.

Speed and bandwidth of networks

Category : 其他

As we know, there are different types of networks for mobile networks.  Here we list the speed to compare,

GPRS Downlink 85.6 kbps, Uplink 42.8 kbps
CDMA Downlink/Uplink 153.6kbps
EDGE Downlink 236.8 kbps, Uplink 118 kbps
UMTS Downlink/Uplink 384 kbps
HSDPA Downlink 7.2 Mbps, Uplink 384k bps
HSUPA Downlink 7.2Mbps, Uplink 5.76Mbps
HSPA+ Downlink 21/42Mbps, Uplink 5.76Mbps
EVDO Rev0 2.4Mbps downlink, 153.6kbps uplink
EVDO RevA 3.1Mbps downlink, 2.4Mbps uplink
EVDO RevB 14.7Mbps downlink, 5.4Mbps uplink
TD-SCDMA 2.8Mbps
4G LTE 100Mbps downlink, 50Mbps uplink

Mobile Data Networks Understanding 2.5G vs 3G vs 4G

Category : 其他

Real 4G comes? Let’s understand what real 4g and fake 4g.

Some people call HSPA+ as 4G, actually there is a real definition of 4G networks.

Ever since Some carriers launched their HSPA+ 4G data services in some countries a lot of people have been saying “it’s not ‘real’ 4G”. But what is ‘real’ 4G anyway? Who decides what 4G ‘is’? Let’s look at the mobile networks that have been deployed, from GPRS 2G to 4G HSPA+.

Just to answer the question of who controls the classification “4G” – the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), a body created under the United Nations regulates the global telecommunications industry. One of the core mandates of the ITU is to establish worldwide telecommunications standards, and they determine the official classification (2G/3G/4G) of mobile data networks such as GPRS, EDGE, HSPA+, WiMAX, etc.