Industrial-grade 4G router TCP/IP network architecture 1. Layering of TCP/IP network system   TCP/IP (TransmissionControlProtocol/InternetProtocol), transmission control protocol/Internet protocol. It was developed by the defense advanced research projects agency in the 1970s, and was later integrated into UNIX and popularized. It emerged in the 1980s as the Internet's...


The structure of 4G DTU The main function of DTU is to transmit data from remote devices back to the background center via wired/wireless. Different data transmission modes of DTU include all-network-connected DTU, GPRS DTU, WIFI DTU, CAN DTU and 4G DTU. Today, we will have a look at the structure and work flow of DTU.   To complete...


What are the wireless connection technologies of the... Internet of things (iot) applications have been deeply rooted in our lives. The E-Lins H685 industrial-grade router is a small industrial-grade wireless router with single or double LAN ports. TDD/ fdd-lte, 4G, 3G, GPRS network optional. Besides, what are the wireless connectivity technologies for the Internet of things?   1....


The use of industrial wireless routers Industrial-grade wireless router adopts high performance 32-bit industrial-grade ARM9 communication processor, which is widely used in finance, electric power, postal, water conservancy, environmental protection, meteorology and other industries.   Industrial router is mainly used in intelligent transportation,...


Cascade and stack of industrial-grade 4G routers The most basic star Ethernet architecture, the actual star enterprise network may be much more complex than this. This renaturation is not only reflected in how high-end network equipment, how complex configuration, more importantly, the performance of network switching level is more complex. Industrial routers and firewalls...



E-Lins Antenna Catalog

Category : 产品文章, 其他

Usually magnetic antenna is used for our 3G/4G routers. It has 3dbi, 5dbi, 7dbi, 9dbi and 11dbi. 3dbi is in standard packing, if router will be applied in rural place, high gain antenna is for optional.



Sometimes, you don’t want this long antenna with cable, you also can choose rubber antenna, which is small and powerful.


We also have wall mounted antenna, panel antenna, glass fiber antenna and so on, for further information, please check:

E-Lins FAQ — POE

Category : 产品文章, 伊林思产品FAQ, 其他, 技术相关

Q: Does your router support POE option? How does it work?

A: Yes, E-lins H685 series, H700 series and H720 series routers support POE option.

It works as following chart.



Antenna Gain

Category : 其他

For a better understanding about antenna gain, you can go through this article.

Antenna gain is often quoted with respect to a hypothetical antenna that radiates equally in all directions, an isotropic radiator. This gain, when measured in decibels, is called dBi. Conservation of energy dictates that high gain antennas must have narrow beams. For example, if a high gain antenna makes a 1 watt transmitter look like a 100 watt transmitter, then the beam can cover at most 1/100 of the sky (otherwise the total amount of energy radiated in all directions would sum to more than the transmitter power, which is not possible). In turn this implies that high-gain antennas must be physically large, since according to the diffraction limit, the narrower the beam desired, the larger the antenna must be (measured in wavelengths).

Antenna gain can also be measured in dBd, which is gain in Decibels compared to the maximum intensity direction of a half wave dipole. In the case of Yagi type aerials this more or less equates to the gain one would expect from the aerial under test minus all its directors and reflector. It is important not to confuse dBi and dBd; the two differ by 2.15 dB, with the dBi figure being higher, since a dipole has 2.15 db of gain with respect to an isotropic antenna.

Gain is also dependent on the number of elements and the tuning of those elements. Antennas can be tuned to be resonant over a wider spread of frequencies but, all other things being equal, this will mean the gain of the aerial is lower than one tuned for a single frequency or a group of frequencies. For example, in the case of wideband TV antennas the fall off in gain is particularly large at the bottom of the TV transmitting band. In the UK this bottom third of the TV band is known as group A, see gain graph comparing grouped aerials to a wideband aerial of the same size/model.

Other factors may also affect gain such as aperture (the area the antenna collects signal from, almost entirely related to the size of the antenna but for small antennas can be increased by adding a ferrite rod), and efficiency (again, affected by size, but also resistivity of the materials used and impedance matching). These factors are easy to improve without adjusting other features of the antennas or coincidentally improved by the same factors that increase directivity, and so are typically not emphasized.

E-Lins router has stardard 3dbi cellular antenna. This is enough for normal use. If you want to put it in rural place or place with bad reception, it’s better to get a high gain antenna.

Orange helps Sensile Tech monitor Oil & Gas with M2M

Category : 其他, 技术相关

About Sensile Technologies

Sensile Technologies is a forerunner in the Internet of Things (IoT) market and a leading provider of solutions for remote monitoring of tank levels for the oil and propane industry. Founded in 1999 and based in Morges, Switzerland, Sensile Technologies has extensive experience in high-quality product development and production as well as reliable service and support. They are an innovative company with four world premieres under their belt. All of their products are Swiss made and certified for hazardous environments.


About Orange Business Services

Orange Business Services, the Orange branch dedicated to B2B services, is not only a telecom operator, but also an IT solutions integrator and applications developer in France and around the world. Its 20,000 employees support companies in all areas of their digital transformation: mobile and collaborative workspaces; IT/cloud infrastructure; fixed and mobile connectivity; private and hybrid networks; applications for Internet of Things, 360° customer experience and Big Data analytics; and cybersecurity thanks to dedicated experts and infrastructure to protect information systems. More than 3,000 multinational organizations and 2 million SOHOs, enterprises and local authorities in France rely on Orange Business Services as their trusted partner.


Orange is one of the world’s leading telecommunications operators with annual sales of 40 billion euros in 2015 and has 155,000 employees worldwide at 31 March 2016. Orange is listed on the NYSE Euronext Paris (symbol ORA) and on the New York Stock Exchange (symbol ORAN).

Orange and any other Orange product or service names included in this material are trademarks of Orange or Orange Brand Services Limited.



Orange Business Services has won a three-year contract with Sensile Technologies for M2M connectivity, including 25,000 SIM cards, to support its two remote monitoring products worldwide: NETRIS®2 and GASLink®

Headquartered in Morges, Switzerland, Sensile Technologies is a pioneer in the internet of things (IoT) market. Specifically, it is a leading provider of solutions for the remote monitoring of tanks and meters in the oil and gas industry. Sensile Technologies monitors more than 60,000 tanks in industrial and business facilities across 60 countries, via a global network of highly-qualified technicians and local partners.

Up to now, Sensile Technologies used 2G compatible devices to power its telemetry solutions. The contract with Orange Business Services extends this to cover 3G/4G devices, which future-proofs the solutions against 2G network shutdown and ensures seamless global coverage.

Sensile Technologies’ telemetry solutions, GASLink® and NETRIS®2, play a key role in the monitoring process. They are installed directly in the oil or propane tank and regularly send tank level measurements via the GSM network to the cloud, where the data is automatically processed.

The up-to-date tank level data allows oil and propane merchants – and their haulers – to arrange deliveries automatically via planning tools. They get data directly in their enterprise resource planning (ERP) system from Sensile Technologies’ Oil Link cloud solution to trigger deliveries automatically. In addition, their customers can get access on smartphones to monitor consumption.

Thanks to the optimization of deliveries based on live data, merchants and haulers can lower their logistics costs by at least 25 percent, without the risk of customers running dry. In addition to mitigating the risk of running out of fuel, customers are also able to access a detailed visualization and analysis of their logistics, enabling them to adapt their processes to reduce their costs further.

“Leading oil and propane companies rely on our autonomous, robust, and easy to install systems. We have more than 60,000 in place on tanks in over 60 countries. Orange Business Services has proven itself as a reliable partner with the global footprint we need for our business. Their competitive flat-fee pricing was convincing as well,” said Jean-Marc Uehlinger, Operational Director, Sensile Technologies.

“With its telemetry solutions Sensile Technologies is helping drive the latest revolution in industry. In Industry 4.0 every part of the enterprise and each phase of the manufacturing cycle will be connected. The internet of things (IoT) and M2M play a key part in this revolution, and we manage 10 million connected objects for our customers worldwide, including over 7 million active SIM cards,” Anne-Sophie Lotgering, senior vice president Europe, Russia & CIS, Orange Business Services.

GASLink® and NETRIS®2 are the result of 15 years’ experience from Sensile Technologies in the development and production of autonomous telemetry equipment. In addition to using the 2G (SMS) network to transmit data, NETRIS®2 can also use 3G or 4G, as well as create a short-distance radio frequency connection, which functions in every location.

PPPoE–Point-to-point protocol over Ethernet

Category : 其他, 技术相关

The Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol for encapsulating PPP frames inside Ethernet frames. It appeared in 1999, in the context of the boom of DSL as the solution for tunneling packet sover the DSL connection to the ISP’s IP network, and from there to the rest of the Internet. A 2005 networking book noted that “Most DSL providers use PPPoE, which provides authentication, encryption, and compression.” Typical use of PPPoE involves leveraging the PPP facilities for authenticating the user with a username and password, predominately via the PAP protocol and less often via CHAP.

On the customer-premises equipment, PPPoE may be implemented either in a unified residential gateway device that handles both DSL modem and IP routing functions or in the case of a simple DSL modem (without routing support), PPPoE may be handled behind it on a separate Ethernet-only router or even directly on a user’s computer. (Support for PPPoE is present in most operating systems, ranging from Windows XP, Linux to Mac OS X.) More recently, some GPON-based (instead of DSL-based) residential gateways also use PPPoE, although the status of PPPoE in the GPON standards is marginal.

PPPoE was developed by UUNET, Redback Networks (now Ericsson) and RouterWare (now Wind River Systems) and is available as an informational RFC 2516.

In the world of DSL, PPPoE was commonly understood to be running on top of ATM (or DSL) as the underlying transport, although no such limitation exists in the PPPoE protocol itself. Other usage scenarios are sometimes distinguished by tacking as a suffix another underlying transport. For example, PPPoEoE, when the transport is Ethernet itself, as in the case of Metro Ethernet networks. (In this notation, the original use of PPPoE would be labeled PPPoEoA, although it should not be confused with PPPoA, which is a different encapsulation protocol.)

PPPoE has been described in some books as a “layer 2.5″ protocol, in some rudimentary sense similar to MPLS because it can be used to distinguish different IP flows sharing an Ethernet infrastructure, although the lack of PPPoE switches making routing decision based on PPPoE headers limits applicability in that respect.

Nokia #India announces #5G #IoT for #SmartCities

Category : 其他, 技术相关

The Finnish company showcased more than 60 different use-cases of these technologies at its annual Innovation Day in Bengaluru, including those that are already live and ready for use as well as ones that aren’t live yet.

Nokia’s research and development office in Bengaluru, which has around 5,000 employees, creates solutions for both its Indian and international markets. Its new IoT range, though, will focus more on Indian clients, especially governments.

“5G and IoT are going to be the future trends that we see in the marketplace. While from an India standpoint it’s still an early stage for 5G to happen, IoT is taking a bit of a step forward in terms of adoption here,” Randeep Raina, chief technology officer for Nokia India said in an interview on Wednesday.

“There are certain initiatives led by the government right now in the form of digital India and smart city programs. IoT could be one of the enablers to make cities a bit safer and smarter. It’s with that intent that we’d put a theme out here on this innovation day,” he said.

The three main solutions, or use-cases, showcased by the company on Wednesday were video analytics of real-time city surveillance, a public safety service that can be deployed at railroad crossings and a smart parking service.

Based on real-time city surveillance via cameras deployed at various public locations Nokia’s IoT solution will be able to provide clients – mostly governments and policing authorities – with data analysis. The analysis includes everything from identifying anomalies, such as incorrect pedestrian crossings, to tracking traffic patterns.

Its public safety solution uses sensors, beacons and cameras and is aimed at keeping pedestrians from straying across the path of oncoming trains at railroad crossings. This service will both warn people crossing railroads on foot of an oncoming train as well as alert the authorities and issue notice of a fine in case people cross even after receiving a warning. The warning messages will appear on any device using any service provider and are not app-based, i.e. the user will not need to install an app to see the messages.

Nokia’s smart parking solution will target organized parking lots that can use it to fully automate the process – from identifying a car on entry and guiding the driver to free parking spots through an app, to recording the number of hours a car is parked at the lot and bill payment online via the app.

Roughly two months ago, auto components supplier Bosch Ltd also launched solutions targeted at creating smart cities, including a smart parking service that will help commuters find space in crowded areas. The German company has other similar solutions that are, again, aimed at assisting traffic policing and citizen safety and security systems.

M2M Magazine

Research: China IoT Market is expected to Worth 121.45 Billion USD by 2022

Category : 其他, 技术相关

According to the new market research report China IoT Market by Hardware (Processor, Memory, Logic, Sensor, & Connectivity), Software (Real-Time Streaming, Network Security, Data Management, Remote Monitoring, & Bandwidth Management), Platform, Service, and Application – Global Forecast to 2022,published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is expected to reach USD 121.45 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 41.1% between 2016 and 2022.

The major factors driving this market are the growing demand for smartphone and other connecting devices, the increasing internet penetration, rising trends of industrial automation, and mainstream adoption of cloud computing.

A Brief Introduction of US largest Operator Verizon

Category : 其他, 技术相关

Verizon Communications, Inc. (simply known as Verizon), is a broadband telecommunications company and the largest U.S. wireless communications service provider as of September 2014, and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is based at 1095 Avenue of the Americas in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but is incorporated in Delaware.


What eventually became Verizon was founded as Bell Atlantic, which was one of the seven Baby Bells that were formed after AT&T Corporation was forced to relinquish its control of the Bell System by order of the Justice Department of the United States. Bell Atlantic came into existence in 1984 with a footprint from New Jersey to Virginia, with each area having a separate operating company (consisting of New Jersey Bell, Bell of Pennsylvania, Diamond State Telephone, and C&P Telephone).


As part of the rebranding that the Baby Bells took in the mid-1990s, all of the operating companies assumed the Bell Atlantic name. In 1997, Bell Atlantic expanded into New York and the New England states by merging with fellow Baby Bell NYNEX. In addition, Bell Atlantic moved their headquarters from Philadelphia into the old NYNEX headquarters and rebranded the entire company as Bell Atlantic.


In 2000, Bell Atlantic merged with GTE, which operated telecommunications companies across most of the rest of the country that was not already in Bell Atlantic’s footprint. Bell Atlantic, the surviving company, changed its name to “Verizon”, a portmanteau of veritas (Latin for “truth”) and horizon.


As of 2016, Verizon is one of three companies that had their roots in the former Baby Bells. The other two, like Verizon, exist as a result of mergers among fellow former Baby Bell members. One, SBC Communications, bought out its former parent AT&T Corporation and assumed the AT&T name. The other, CenturyLink, was formed initially in 2011 by the acquisition of Qwest (formerly named US West).


Category : 其他, 技术相关


  LTE CAT全名LTE UE-Category,拆开来解释, LTE指的是4G LTE网络、UE是指用户设备、Category翻译为等级。通顺解释就是用户设备能够支持的4G LTE网络传输速率的等级,也可以说成是4G网络速度的一个技术标准。所以LTE CAT4/CAT6就是指用户设备LTE网络接入能力等级为4或6。

  既然等级不同,那么其能力也肯定是不一样的,下面我们来看看LTE CAT4/CAT6影响了什么性能,分别是什么水平。简单来说,LTE CAT影响的就是4G LTE上行、下行网络速度的上限,通俗来讲就用户设备所能达到的上传、下载速度最大值。


  在LTE CAT中不仅有4、6两个等级,上表是我们罗列的目前已知的LTE CAT等级以及对应的最大传输速度。其中LTE CAT4/CAT6也是目前4G手机的网络传输技术水平,而速度更快的CAT7和CAT8则仍处于实验室阶段,并未商用开发。


What is OpenWrt

Category : 其他, 技术相关

OpenWrt is an embedded operating system based on the Linux kernel, primarily used on embedded devices to route network traffic. The main components are the Linux kernel, util-linux, uClibc or musl, and BusyBox. All components have been optimized for size, to be small enough for fitting into the limited storage and memory available in home routers.
OpenWrt is configured using a command-line interface (ash shell), or a web interface (LuCI). There are about 3500 optional software packages available for installation via the opkg package management system.
OpenWrt can run on various types of devices, including CPE routers, residential gateways, smartphones, pocket computers (e.g. Ben NanoNote), and laptops. It is also possible to run OpenWrt on personal computers, which are most commonly based on the x86 architecture.
The project came into being because Linksys built the firmware for their WRT54G series of wireless routers from publicly available code licensed under the GPL. Under the terms of that license, Linksys was required to make the source code of its modified version available under the same license, which in turn enabled independent developers to create additional derivative versions. Support was originally limited to the WRT54G series, but has since been expanded to include many other chipsets, manufacturers and device types, including Plug Computers and Openmoko mobile phones.
Using this code as a base and later as a reference, developers created a Linux distribution that offers many features not previously found in consumer-level routers. Some features formerly required proprietary software. Before the introduction of OpenWrt 8.09, using Linux 2.6.25 and the b43 kernel module, WLAN for many Broadcom-based routers was only available through the proprietary wl.o module that was also provided for Linux kernel version 2.4.x only.
The code names of OpenWrt branches are named after alcoholic beverages, usually including their recipes in the MOTD as well, cf. White Russian, Kamikaze, Backfire, Attitude Adjustment, Barrier Breaker.
The bleeding edge development trunk was confusingly also called Kamikaze until February 2011 but with r25514 it was renamed as “Attitude Adjustment” and is now being constantly renamed to the next stable name.
OpenWrt follows the bazaar-philosophy and is known for an abundance of options. Features include:
• A writable root file system, enabling users to add, remove or modify any file. This is accomplished by using overlayfs to overlay a read-only compressed SquashFS file system with a writable JFFS2 file system in a copy-on-write fashion. JFFS2 supports flash wear leveling.
• The package manager opkg, similar to dpkg, enables users to install and remove software. The package repository contains about 3500 packages. This contrasts with Linux-based firmwares based on read-only file systems without the possibility to modify the installed software without rebuilding and flashing a complete firmware image.
• A set of scripts called UCI (unified configuration interface) intended to unify and simplify the configuration of the entire system
• Extensible configuration of the entire hardware drivers, e.g. built-in network switches and their VLAN-capabilities, WNICs, DSL modems, FX, available hardware buttons, etc.
• Exhaustive possibilities to configure network-related features, like:
• IPv4 support.
• IPv6 native stack:
• Prefix Handling,
• Native IPv6 configuration (SLAAC, stateless DHCPv6, stateful DHCPv6, DHCPv6-PD),
• IPv6 transitioning technologies (6rd, 6to4, 6in4, ds-lite, lw4o6, map-e),
• Downstream IPv6 configuration (Router Advertisement, DHCPv6 (stateless and stateful) and DHCPv6-PD).
• Routing through iproute2, Quagga, BIRD, Babel etc.
• Mesh networking through B.A.T.M.A.N., OLSR and IEEE 802.11s-capabilities of the WNIC drivers
• Wireless functionality, e.g. make the device act as a wireless repeater, a wireless access point, a wireless bridge, a captive portal, or a combination of these with e.g. ChilliSpot, WiFiDog Captive Portal, etc.
• Wireless security: Packet injection, e.g. Airpwn, lorcon, e.a.
• Stateful firewall, NAT and port forwarding through netfilter; additionally PeerGuardian is available
• Dynamically-configured port forwarding protocols UPnP and NAT-PMP through upnpd, etc.
• Port knocking via knockd and knock
• TR-069 (CWMP) client
• IPS via Snort (software)
• Active queue management (AQM) through the network scheduler of the Linux kernel, with many available queuing disciplines. CoDel has been backported to Kernel 3.3. This encapsulates Traffic shaping to ensure fair distribution of bandwidth among multiple users and Quality of Service (QoS) for simultaneous use of applications such as VoIP, online gaming, and streaming media without experiencing the negative impacts of link saturation.
• Load balancing for use with multiple ISPs using source-specific routing
• IP tunneling (GRE, OpenVPN, pseudowire, etc.)
• Extensible realtime network monitoring and statistics through e.g. RRDtool, Collectd, Nagios, Munin lite, Zabbix, etc.
• Domain Name System (DNS) and DHCP through Dnsmasq, MaraDNS, etc.
• Dynamic DNS services to maintain a fixed domain name with an ISP that does not provide a static IP address
• Wireless distribution system (WDS) including WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK Mixed-Mode encryption modes
• OpenWrt supports any hardware that has Linux support; devices that can be connected (e.g. over USB) to an embedded device include
• Printers
• Mobile broadband modems
• Webcams
• Sound cards
• Notable software packages to use the hardware support are:
• File sharing via SAMBA, (Windows-compatible), NFS and FTP, printer sharing over the print server CUPS (spooling) or p910nd (non-spooling)
• PulseAudio, Music Player Daemon, Audio/Video streaming via DLNA/UPnP AV standards, iTunes (DAAP) server
• Asterisk (PBX)
• MQ Telemetry Transport through Mosquitto
• An extensive Ajax-enabled web interface, thanks to the LuCI project
• Regular bug fixes and updates, even for devices no longer supported by their manufacturers


Link to E-Lins OpenWrt Products: