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Industrial-grade 4G router TCP/IP network architecture 1. Layering of TCP/IP network system   TCP/IP (TransmissionControlProtocol/InternetProtocol), transmission control protocol/Internet protocol. It was developed by the defense advanced research projects agency in the 1970s, and was later integrated into UNIX and popularized. It emerged in the 1980s as the Internet's...

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The structure of 4G DTU The main function of DTU is to transmit data from remote devices back to the background center via wired/wireless. Different data transmission modes of DTU include all-network-connected DTU, GPRS DTU, WIFI DTU, CAN DTU and 4G DTU. Today, we will have a look at the structure and work flow of DTU.   To complete...

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What are the wireless connection technologies of the... Internet of things (iot) applications have been deeply rooted in our lives. The E-Lins H685 industrial-grade router is a small industrial-grade wireless router with single or double LAN ports. TDD/ fdd-lte, 4G, 3G, GPRS network optional. Besides, what are the wireless connectivity technologies for the Internet of things?   1....

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The use of industrial wireless routers Industrial-grade wireless router adopts high performance 32-bit industrial-grade ARM9 communication processor, which is widely used in finance, electric power, postal, water conservancy, environmental protection, meteorology and other industries.   Industrial router is mainly used in intelligent transportation,...

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Cascade and stack of industrial-grade 4G routers The most basic star Ethernet architecture, the actual star enterprise network may be much more complex than this. This renaturation is not only reflected in how high-end network equipment, how complex configuration, more importantly, the performance of network switching level is more complex. Industrial routers and firewalls...

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Talking about Long Distance Wi-Fi

Category : 其他, 技术相关

Introduction
Since the development of the IEEE 802.11 radio standard (marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name), the technology has become markedly less expensive and achieved higher bit rates. Long range Wi-Fi especially in the 2.4 GHz band (as the shorter range higher bit rate 5.8 GHz bands become popular alternatives to wired LAN connections) have proliferated with specialist devices. While Wi-Fi hotspots are ubiquitous in urban areas, some rural areas use more powerful longer range transceivers as alternatives to cell (GSM, CDMA) or fixed wireless (Motorola Canopy and other 900 MHz) applications. The main drawbacks of 2.4 GHz vs. these lower-frequency options are:

poor signal penetration – 2.4 GHz connections are effectively limited to line of sight or soft obstacles
far less range – GSM or CDMA cell phones can connect reliably at > 16 km (9.9 mi) distances. The range of GSM, imposed by the parameters of Time division multiple access, is set at 35 km.
few service providers commercially support long distance Wi-Fi connections
Despite a lack of commercial service providers, applications for long range Wi-Fi have cropped up around the world. It has also been used in experimental trials in the developing world to link communities separated by difficult geography with few or no other connectivity options. Some benefits of using long range Wi-Fi for these applications include:

unlicensed spectrum – avoiding negotiations with incumbent telecom providers, governments or others
smaller, simpler, cheaper antennas – 2.4 GHz antennas are less than half the size of comparable strength 900 MHz antennas and require less lightning protection
availability of proven free software like OpenWrt, DD-WRT, Tomato that works even on old routers (WRT54G for instance) and makes modes like WDS, OLSR, etc., available to anyone. Including revenue sharing models for hotspots.
Nonprofit organizations operating widespread installations, such as forest services, also make extensive use of long-range Wi-Fi to augment or replace older communications technologies such as shortwave or microwave transceivers in licensed bands.

Applications
Business
Provide coverage to a large office or business complex or campus.
Establish point-to-point link between large skyscrapers or other office buildings.
Bring Internet to remote construction sites or research labs.
Simplify networking technologies by coalescing around a small number of Internet related widely used technologies, limiting or eliminating legacy technologies such as shortwave radio so these can be dedicated to uses where they actually are needed.
Bring Internet to a home if regular cable/DSL cannot be hooked up at the location.
Bring Internet to a vacation home or cottage on a remote mountain or on a lake.
Bring Internet to a yacht or large seafaring vessel.
Share a neighborhood Wi-Fi network.
Nonprofit and Government
Connect widespread physical guard posts, e.g. for foresters, that guard a physical area, without any new wiring
In tourist regions, fill in cell dead zones with Wi-Fi coverage, and ensure connectivity for local tourist trade operators
Reduce costs of dedicated network infrastructure and improve security by applying modern encryption and authentication.
Military
Connect critical opinion leaders, infrastructure such as schools and police stations, in a network local authorities can maintain
Build resilient infrastructure with cheaper equipment that an impoverished war-torn region can afford, i.e. using commercial grade, rather than military-class network technology, which may then be left with the developed-world military
Reduce costs and simplify/protect supply chains by using cheaper simpler equipment that draws less fuel and battery power; In general these are high priorities for commercial technologies like Wi-Fi especially as they are used in mobile devices.
Scientific research
See also: Wireless sensor network
A long range seismic sensor network was used during the Andean Seismic Project in Peru. A multi-hop span with a total length of 320 kilometres was crossed with some segments around 30 to 50 kilometers. The goal was to connect to outlying stations to UCLA in order to receive seismic data in real time.
Large-scale deployments
The Technology and Infrastructure for Emerging Regions (TIER) project at University of California at Berkeley in collaboration with Intel, uses a modified Wi-Fi setup to create long-distance point-to-point links for several of its projects in the developing world. This technique, dubbed Wi-Fi over Long Distance (WiLD), is used to connect the Aravind Eye Hospital with several outlying clinics in Tamil Nadu state, India. Distances range from five to over fifteen kilometres (3–10 miles) with stations placed in line of sight of each other. These links allow specialists at the hospital to communicate with nurses and patients at the clinics through video conferencing. If the patient needs further examination or care, a hospital appointment can then be scheduled. Another network in Ghana links the University of Ghana, Legon campus to its remote campuses at the Korle bu Medical School and the City campus; a further extension will feature links up to 80 km (50 mi) apart.

The Tegola project of the University of Edinburgh is developing new technologies to bring high-speed, affordable broadband to rural areas beyond the reach of fibre. A 5-link ring connects Knoydart, the N. shore of Loch Hourne, and a remote community at Kilbeg to backhaul from the Gaelic College on Skye. All links pass over tidal waters; they range in length from 2.5 km to 19 km.

Increasing range in other ways
Further information: 802.11 non-standard equipment and Radio propagation
Specialized Wi-Fi channels
For more details on this topic, see List of WLAN channels.
In most standard Wi-Fi routers, the three standards, a, b and g, are enough. But in long-range Wi-Fi, special technologies are used to get the most out of a Wi-Fi connection. The 802.11-2007 standard adds 10 MHz and 5 MHz OFDM modes to the 802.11a standard, and extend the time of cyclic prefix protection from 0.8 µs to 3.2 µs, quadrupling the multipath distortion protection. Some commonly available 802.11a/g chipsets support the OFDM ‘half-clocking’ and ‘quarter-clocking’ that is in the 2007 standard, and 4.9 GHz and 5.0 GHz products are available with 10 MHz and 5 MHz channel bandwidths. It is likely that some 802.11n D.20 chipsets will also support ‘half-clocking’ for use in 10 MHz channel bandwidths, and at double the range of the 802.11n standard.

802.11n and MIMO
Preliminary 802.11n working became available in many routers in 2008. This technology can use multiple antennas to target one or more sources to increase speed. This is known as MIMO, Multiple Input Multiple Output. In tests, the speed increase was said to only occur over short distances rather than the long range needed for most point to point setups. On the other hand, using dual antennas with orthogonal polarities along with a 2×2 MIMO chipset effectively enable two independent carrier signals to be sent and received along the same long distance path.

Power increase or receiver sensitivity boosting

A rooftop 1 watt Wi-Fi amp, feeding a simple vertical antenna on the left.
Another way of adding range uses a power amplifier. Commonly known as “range extender amplifiers” these small devices usually supply around ½ watt of power to the antenna. Such amplifiers may give more than five times the range to an existing network. Every 6 dB gain doubles range. The alternative techniques of selecting a more sensitive WLAN adapter and more directive antenna should also be considered.

Higher gain antennas and adapter placement
Specially shaped directional antennas can increase the range of a Wi-Fi transmission without a drastic increase in transmission power. High gain antenna may be of many designs, but all allow transmitting a narrow signal beam over greater distance than a non-directional antenna, often nulling out nearby interference sources. A popular low-cost home made approach increases WiFi ranges by just placing standard USB WLAN hardware at the focal point of modified parabolic cookware. Such “WokFi” techniques typically yield gains more than 10 dB over the bare system; enough for line of sight (LOS) ranges of several kilometers and improvements in marginal locations. Although often low power, cheap USB WLAN adapters suit site auditing and location of local signal “sweet spots”. As USB leads incur none of the losses normally associated with costly microwave coax and SMA fittings, just extending a USB adapter (or AP, etc.) up to a window, or away from shielding metal work and vegetation, may dramatically improve the link.

Protocol hacking
The standard IEEE 802.11 protocol implementations can be modified to make them more suitable for long distance, point-to-point usage, at the risk of breaking interoperability with other Wi-Fi devices and suffering interference from transmitters located near the antenna. These approaches are used by the TIER project.

In addition to power levels, it is also important to know how the 802.11 protocol acknowledges each received frame. If the acknowledgement is not received, the frame is re-transmitted. By default, the maximum distance between transmitter and receiver is 1.6 km (1 mi). On longer distances the delay will force retransmissions. On standard firmware for some professional equipment such as the Cisco Aironet 1200, this parameter can be tuned for optimal throughput. OpenWrt, DD-WRT and all derivatives of it also enable such tweaking. In general, open source software is vastly superior to commercial firmware for all purposes involving protocol hacking, as the philosophy is to expose all radio chipset capabilities and let the user modify them. This strategy has been especially effective with low end routers such as the WRT54G which had excellent hardware features the commercial firmware did not support. As of 2011, many vendors still supported only a subset of chipset features that open source firmware unlocked, and most vendors actively encourage the use of open source firmware for protocol hacking, in part to avoid the difficulty of trying to support commercial firmware users attempting this.

Packet fragmentation can also be used to improve throughput in noisy/congested conditions. Although packet fragmentation is often thought of as something bad, and does indeed add a large overhead, reducing throughput, it is sometimes necessary. For example, in a congested situation, ping times of 30 byte packets can be excellent, while ping times of 1450 byte packets can be very poor with high packet loss. Dividing the packet in half, by setting the fragmentation threshold to 750, can vastly improve the throughput. The fragmentation threshold should be a division of the MTU, typically 1500, so should be 750, 500, 375, etc. However, excessive fragmentation can make the problem worse, since the increased overhead will increase congestion.

Obstacles to long-range Wi-Fi
Methods that increase the range of a Wi-Fi connection may also make it fragile and volatile, due to various factors including:

Landscape interference
Obstacles are among the biggest problems when setting up a long-range Wi-Fi. Trees and forests attenuate the microwave signal, and hills make it difficult to establish line-of-sight propagation.

In a city, buildings will impact integrity, speed and connectivity. Steel frames and Sheet metal in walls or roofs may partially or fully reflect radio signals, causing signal loss or multipath problems. Concrete or plaster walls absorb microwave signals significantly, reducing the total signal.

Tidal fading
When point-to-point wireless connections cross tidal estuaries or archipelagos, multipath interference from reflections over tidal water can be considerably destructive. The Tegola project uses a slow frequency-hopping technique to mitigate tidal fading.

2.4 GHz interference
Main article: Electromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHz
Microwave ovens in residences dominate the 2.4 GHz band and will cause “meal time perturbations” of the noise floor. There are many other sources of interference that aggregate into a formidable obstacle to enabling long range use in occupied areas. Residential wireless phones, baby monitors, wireless cameras, remote car starters, and Bluetooth products are all capable of transmitting in the 2.4 GHz band.

Due to the intended nature of the 2.4 GHz band, there are many users of this band, with potentially dozens of devices per household. By its very nature, “long range” connotes an antenna system which can see many of these devices, which when added together produce a very high noise floor, whereby no single signal is usable, but nonetheless are still received. The aim of a long range system is to produce a system which over-powers these signals and/or uses directional antennas to prevent the receiver “seeing” these devices, thereby reducing the noise floor.

IoT Applications

Category : 其他, 技术相关

According to Gartner, Inc. (a technology research and advisory corporation), there will be nearly 20.8 billion devices on the Internet of things by 2020. ABI Research estimates that more than 30 billion devices will be wirelessly connected to the Internet of things by 2020. As per a 2014 survey and study done by Pew Research Internet Project, a large majority of the technology experts and engaged Internet users who responded—83 percent—agreed with the notion that the Internet/Cloud of Things, embedded and wearable computing (and the corresponding dynamic systems) will have widespread and beneficial effects by 2025. As such, it is clear that the IoT will consist of a very large number of devices being connected to the Internet. In an active move to accommodate new and emerging technological innovation, the UK Government, in their 2015 budget, allocated £40,000,000 towards research into the Internet of things. The former British Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne, posited that the Internet of things is the next stage of the information revolution and referenced the inter-connectivity of everything from urban transport to medical devices to household appliances.

Integration with the Internet implies that devices will use an IP address as a unique identifier. However, due to thelimited address space of IPv4 (which allows for 4.3 billion unique addresses), objects in the IoT will have to use IPv6to accommodate the extremely large address space required. Objects in the IoT will not only be devices with sensory capabilities, but also provide actuation capabilities (e.g., bulbs or locks controlled over the Internet). To a large extent, the future of the Internet of things will not be possible without the support of IPv6; and consequently the global adoption of IPv6 in the coming years will be critical for the successful development of the IoT in the future.

The ability to network embedded devices with limited CPU, memory and power resources means that IoT finds applications in nearly every field. Such systems could be in charge of collecting information in settings ranging from natural ecosystems to buildings and factories, thereby finding applications in fields of environmental sensing and urban planning.

On the other hand, IoT systems could also be responsible for performing actions, not just sensing things. Intelligent shopping systems, for example, could monitor specific users’ purchasing habits in a store by tracking their specific mobile phones. These users could then be provided with special offers on their favorite products, or even location of items that they need, which their fridge has automatically conveyed to the phone. Additional examples of sensing and actuating are reflected in applications that deal with heat, electricity and energy management, as well as cruise-assisting transportation systems. Other applications that the Internet of things can provide is enabling extended home security features and home automation. The concept of an “Internet of living things” has been proposed to describe networks of biological sensorsthat could use cloud-based analyses to allow users to study DNA or other molecules.

However, the application of the IoT is not only restricted to these areas. Other specialized use cases of the IoT may also exist. An overview of some of the most prominent application areas is provided here. Based on the application domain, IoT products can be classified broadly into five different categories: smart wearable, smart home, smart city, smart environment, and smart enterprise. The IoT products and solutions in each of these markets have different characteristics.

 

Differences between industrial class and SOHO class for Router / Modem

Category : 其他, 技术相关

As we know, the devices mainly cover three classes, that is SOHO class, Industrial class and Military class.  Each class has its own application requirement. The SOHO class modem and router don’t meet the requirements of the industrial environment and standard entirely because of it is designed for office automation. Mainly differences are the below,

1. Control
The SOHO class is simple design for internet use. People no need control it very often.
The industrial class is designed mainly for industry applications. People need control it quite often, even 7*24 hours.

2. Stable, reliable and robust
SOHO class features are simply. It is mainly used for internet surfing, which is installed in house. People can check and assist it in time. With cost requirement, SOHO class design and development will not care too much for the stability and reliability. The industrial class cares the stability and reliability very much because it’s mainly installed under people’ touch. In another world, it should be working for 7*24 hours without people assist. So the industrial class must have good reliability, recoverability, and maintainability in the production environment at the same time. It is a guarantee that it will not lead the collapse of applications, operating system even the network when any component failure occurs in a network system.

3. The security issues
Lots of fields exist inflammable, explosive or toxic gases inevitably in the process of industrial production, and there must have some certain explosion-proof technology for the intelligent devices and communication equipment which can ensure the safety of industrial field. It is much more practical to add explosion-proof and explosion-proof measures in the Ethernet system under the condition of current technology, namely the ignition energy which caused by the devices problem will not leak through increasing explosion-proof measures to the Ethernet field devices, which can ensure the safety of running system. For those dangerous situation where is no strict safety requirements, you can not consider complex explosion-proof measures.

The network safety of industrial system is another security issue must be considered at the industrial Ethernet applications. Industrial Ethernet can make the traditional three layers of the network system, namely, information management layer, process monitoring layer and field equipment layer, an organic whole, which make the faster data transfer, higher real-time and it can integrate with the Internet seamlessly, it realizes data sharing and improves the operational efficiency of the factory. But there is a series of network security problems at the same time, industrial network may under the threat of virus infection, hackers and illegal operation.

4. The vehicle power supply issues
The vehicle power supply refers to the cable connected to the field devices not only to transmit data signals, but also provide equipment working power supply on-site. The Ethernet hasn’t considered this issue from the design at the beginning, while there are a lot of bus power supply requirements on the industrial site. Because of the above problems, the ordinary commercial Ethernet cannot be applied to the control of industrial field directly. And the industrial Ethernet is produced to solve these problems.

 

5. Features and performance
The industrial class owns much more features and SOHO class, such as connection alive monitor and keeping, Dual Sim connection, multi-line redundancy, GPS, Serial ports, VPN networks, high gain and special antenna replacement, etc.

E-Lins 4G Wireless Router: Solutions for Transport

Category : 其他, 技术相关

Traffic Data Acquisition Application
Traffic Data Acquisition is among one important tasks in ITS. All the on-line or historical data are vital for the design and planning for the traffic management strategy. The traffic data acquisition device normal consists of two parts: the sensor and the controller. The controller links with the central through wire-line connection and send back the data collected from the sensor. However, installation of the wire-line relates to huge engineering efforts and the maintenance of fixed lines has always been difficult. There will be more problems to get wire-line connection in remote areas. When

the communication line goes down, data is lost unless a data Logger is further installed.

In this application, wireless module links with the Traffic Data Acquisition device using RS485 interface. The raw data from the detector is further analyzed by the data protocol analysis mechanism provided by the wireless module and sorted data is transmitted to the central Traffic Control Centre through GPRS network and Internet in TCP/IP packet. Data can be temporarily stored in the memory buffer when GPRS is disconnected. From the system integrator”s point of view, all the integration on the terminal wireless

connection is achieved by the plug & play of wireless module and no change is necessary on the original detecting device. And only simple application is required at the central to access the terminal data. The total system implementation is accomplished within 3 weeks.

High Gain Antenna–Yagi-Uda Antenna

Category : 产品文章, 伊林思产品FAQ, 其他

Today, we are talking about high gain antennas. Here I want to introduce a strong one. A Yagi–Uda antenna, commonly known as a Yagi antenna, is a directional antenna consisting of multiple parallel elements in a line, usually half-wave dipoles made of metal rods.

Yagi–Uda antennas consist of a single driven element connected to the transmitter or receiver with a transmission line, and additional “parasitic elements” which are not connected to the transmitter or receiver: a so-called reflector and one or more directors.

The Yagi–Uda antenna consists of a number of parallel thin rod elements in a line, usually half-wave long, typically supported on a perpendicular crossbar or “boom” along their centers. There is a single driven element driven in the center (consisting of two rods each connected to one side of the transmission line), and a variable number of parasitic elements, a single reflector on one side and optionally one or more directors on the other side. The parasitic elements are not electrically connected to the transmitter or receiver, and serve as passive radiators, reradiating the radio waves to modify the radiation pattern. Typical spacings between elements vary from about  110 to ¼ of a wavelength, depending on the specific design. The directors are slightly shorter than the driven element, while the reflector(s) are slightly longer. The radiation pattern is unidirectional, with the main lobe along the axis perpendicular to the elements in the plane of the elements, off the end with the directors.

It’s also a good choice for you when you use E-Lins routers in rural area. This antenna will gain better reception than standard antennas for routers.

E-Lins New Product H820q —— 5 Powerful Wifi Antenna Assembling

Category : 产品文章, 伊林思产品FAQ, 其他

Best way to assemble H820Q wifi antenna

WiFi1—to 5Ghz Main;

WiFi2–to 5Ghz Aux

WiFi3–to 5Ghz Aux2(for special wifi module)

 

WiFi4–to 2.4Ghz Main

WiFi5–to 2.4Ghz Aux

 

 

IoT WORLD FORUM 2017

Category : 产品文章, 伊林思产品FAQ, 其他

Conference information:

IoT WORLD FORUM 2017 will be held in London, November 15-16 – 2017

IoT WORLD FORUM, 2017 is the world’s leading Internet of Things Conference 2017 focusing on IoT applications, IoT Solutions and IoT Companies for all verticals including automotive, healthcare, asset and fleet management, manufacturing, security, retail point of sales, smart grid, smart metering, smart home and consumer electronics industry.

For more information, please visit the event site here: http://iotinternetofthingsconference.com

E-LINS Router FAQ – - Config

Category : 产品文章, 伊林思产品FAQ, 其他

Q: If we have your routers how do we monitor them?
A: ythere are several types for monitor.
1) Web (local and remote)
2) SMS
3) SNMP
4) Telnet/SSH/CLI
5) Centre monitor server with E-Lins ODM software

The Development of 5G Network

Category : 产品文章, 伊林思产品FAQ, 其他

5G is the trend of the whole world, today I would like to share you the development of 5G network.
In 2008, the South Korean IT R&D program of “5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation” was formed.
In 2012, the UK Government announced the establishment of a 5G Innovation Centre at the University of Surrey – the world’s first research centre set up specifically for 5G mobile research.
In 2012, NYU WIRELESS was established as a multidisciplinary research centre, with a focus on 5G wireless research, as well as its use in the medical and computer-science fields. The centre is funded by the National Science Foundation and a board of 10 major wireless companies (as of July 2014) that serve on the Industrial Affiliates board of the centre. NYU WIRELESS has conducted and published channel measurements that show that millimeter wave frequencies will be viable for multi-gigabit-per-second data rates for future 5G networks.
In 2012, the European Commission, under the lead of Neelie Kroes, committed 50 million euros for research to deliver 5G mobile technology by 2020. In particular, The METIS 2020 Project was the flagship project that allowed reaching a worldwide consensus on the requirements and key technology components of the 5G. Driven by several telecommunication companies, the METIS overall technical goal was to provide a system concept that supports 1,000 times higher mobile system spectral efficiency, compared to current LTE deployments. In addition, in 2013, another project has started, called 5GrEEn, linked to project METIS and focusing on the design of green 5G mobile networks. Here the goal is to develop guidelines for the definition of a new-generation network with particular emphasis on energy efficiency, sustainability and affordability.
In November 2012, a research project funded by the European Union under the ICT Programme FP7 was launched under the coordination of IMDEA Networks Institute (Madrid, Spain): i-JOIN (Interworking and JOINt Design of an Open Access and Backhaul Network Architecture for Small Cells based on Cloud Networks). iJOIN introduces the novel concept of the radio access network (RAN) as a service (RANaaS), where RAN functionality is flexibly centralized through an open IT platform based on a cloud infrastructure. iJOIN aims for a joint design and optimization of access and backhaul, operation and management algorithms, and architectural elements, integrating small cells, heterogeneous backhaul and centralized processing. Additionally to the development of technology candidates across PHY, MAC, and the network layer, iJOIN will study the requirements, constraints and implications for existing mobile networks, specifically 3GPP LTE-A.
In January 2013, a new EU project named CROWD (Connectivity management for eneRgy Optimised Wireless Dense networks) was launched under the technical supervision of IMDEA Networks Institute, to design sustainable networking and software solutions for the deployment of very dense, heterogeneous wireless networks. The project targets sustainability targeted in terms of cost effectiveness and energy efficiency. Very high density means 1000x higher than current density (users per square meter). Heterogeneity involves multiple dimensions, from coverage radius to technologies (4G/LTE vs. Wi-Fi), to deployments (planned vs. unplanned distribution of radio base stations and hot spots).
In September 2013, the Cyber-Physical System (CPS) Lab at Rutgers University, NJ, started to work on dynamic provisioning and allocation under the emerging cloud radio-access network (C-RAN). They have shown that the dynamic demand-aware provisioning in the cloud will decrease the energy consumption while increasing the resource utilization. They also have implemented a test bed for feasibility of C-RAN and developed new cloud-based techniques for interference cancellation. Their project is funded by the National Science Foundation.
In November 2013, Chinese telecom equipment vendor Huawei said it will invest $600 million in research for 5G technologies in the next five years. The company’s 5G research initiative does not include investment to productize 5G technologies for global telecom operators. Huawei will be testing 5G technology in Malta.
In 2015, Huawei and Ericsson are testing 5G-related technologies in rural areas in northern Netherlands.
In July 2015, the METIS-II and 5GNORMA European projects were launched. The METIS-II project builds on the successful METIS project and will develop the overall 5G radio access network design and to provide the technical enablers needed for an efficient integration and use of the various 5G technologies and components currently developed. METIS-II will also provide the 5G collaboration framework within 5G-PPP for a common evaluation of 5G radio access network concepts and prepare concerted action towards regulatory and standardization bodies. On the other hand, the key objective of 5G NORMA is to develop a conceptually novel, adaptive and future-proof 5G mobile network architecture. The architecture is enabling unprecedented levels of network customizability, ensuring stringent performance, security, cost and energy requirements to be met; as well as providing an API-driven architectural openness, fuelling economic growth through over-the-top innovation. With 5G NORMA, leading players in the mobile ecosystem aim to underpin Europe’s leadership position in 5G.
Additionally, in July 2015, the European research project mmMAGIC was launched. The mmMAGIC project will develop new concepts for mobile radio access technology (RAT) for mmwave band deployment. This is a key component in the 5G multi-RAT ecosystem and will be used as a foundation for global standardization. The project will enable ultra fast mobile broadband services for mobile users, supporting UHD/3D streaming, immersive applications and ultra-responsive cloud services. A new radio interface, including novel network management functions and architecture components will be designed taking as guidance 5G PPP’s KPI and exploiting the use of novel adaptive and cooperative beam-forming and tracking techniques to address the specific challenges of mm-wave mobile propagation. The ambition of the project is to pave the way for a European head start in 5G standards and to strengthen European competitiveness. The consortium brings together major infrastructure vendors, major European operators, leading research institutes and universities, measurement equipment vendors and one SME. mmMAGIC is led and coordinated by Samsung. Ericsson acts as technical manager while Intel, Fraunhofer HHI, Nokia, Huawei and Samsung will each lead one of the five technical work packages of the project.
In July 2015, IMDEA Networks launched the Xhaul project, as part of the European H2020 5G Public-Private Partnership (5G PPP). Xhaul will develop an adaptive, sharable, cost-efficient 5G transport network solution integrating the fronthaul and backhaul segments of the network. This transport network will flexibly interconnect distributed 5G radio access and core network functions, hosted on in-network cloud nodes. Xhaul will greatly simplify network operations despite growing technological diversity. It will hence enable system-wide optimisation of Quality of Service (QoS) and energy usage as well as network-aware application development. The Xhaul consortium comprises 21 partners including leading telecom industry vendors, operators, IT companies, small and medium-sized enterprises and academic institutions.
In July 2015, the European 5G research project Flex5Gware was launched. The objective of Flex5Gware is to deliver highly reconfigurable hardware (HW) platforms together with HW-agnostic software (SW) platforms targeting both network elements and devices and taking into account increased capacity, reduced energy footprint, as well as scalability and modularity, to enable a smooth transition from 4G mobile wireless systems to 5G. This will enable that 5G HW/SW platforms can meet the requirements imposed by the anticipated exponential growth in mobile data traffic (1000 fold increase) together with the large diversity of applications (from low bit-rate/power for M2M to interactive and high resolution applications).
In July 2015, the SUPERFLUIDITY project, part of the European H2020 Public-Private Partnership (5G PPP) and led by CNIT, an Italian inter-university consortium, was started. The SUPERFLUIDITY consortium comprises telcos and IT players for a total of 18 partners. In physics, superfluidity is a state in which matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity. The SUPERFLUIDITY project aims at achieving superfluidity in the Internet: the ability to instantiate services on-the-fly, run them anywhere in the network (core, aggregation, edge) and shift them transparently to different locations. The project tackles crucial shortcomings in today’s networks: long provisioning times, with wasteful over-provisioning used to meet variable demand; reliance on rigid and cost-ineffective hardware devices; daunting complexity emerging from three forms of heterogeneity: heterogeneous traffic and sources; heterogeneous services and needs; and heterogeneous access technologies, with multi-vendor network components. SUPERFLUIDITY will provide a converged cloud-based 5G concept that will enable innovative use cases in the mobile edge, empower new business models, and reduce investment and operational costs.
In September 2016, China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced that the government-led 5G Phase-1 test of key wireless technologies for future 5G networks were completed with satisfactory results. The tests were carried out in 100 cities and involved seven companies – Datang Telecom, Ericsson, Huawei, Intel, Nokia Shanghai Bell, Samsung and ZTE. The next step in 5G technology development involving trials is under way, with planned commercial deployment in 2022 or 2023. In April 2017 Huawei announced that it jointly with Telenor conducted successful 5G tests with speeds up to 70 Gbit/s in a controlled lab environment in Norway. The E-band multi-user MIMO can provide a 20 Gbit/s speed rate for a single user. Working as a supplementary low-frequency band, the E-band improves the user experience of enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB).
(from Wikipedia)

A Quick Understanding of FTP/SFTP/FTPS/TFTP

Category : 伊林思产品FAQ, 其他, 技术相关

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client using the Client–server model on a computer network.

FTP is built on a client-server model architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS). SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) is sometimes also used instead; it is technologically different.

 

SSH File Transfer Protocol(SFTP)

The SSH file transfer protocol (chronologically the second of the two protocols abbreviated SFTP) transfers files and has a similar command set for users, but uses the Secure Shell protocol (SSH) to transfer files. Unlike FTP, it encrypts both commands and data, preventing passwords and sensitive information from being transmitted openly over the network. It cannot interoperate with FTP software.

In computing, the SSH File Transfer Protocol (also Secure File Transfer Protocol, or SFTP) is a network protocol that provides file access, file transfer, and file management over any reliable data stream. It was designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an extension of the Secure Shell protocol (SSH) version 2.0 to provide secure file transfer capabilities. The IETF Internet Draft states that, even though this protocol is described in the context of the SSH-2 protocol, it could be used in a number of different applications, such as secure file transfer over Transport Layer Security (TLS) and transfer of management information in VPN applications.

This protocol assumes that it is run over a secure channel, such as SSH, that the server has already authenticated the client, and that the identity of the client user is available to the protocol.

Simple File Transfer Protocol

Simple File Transfer Protocol (the first protocol abbreviated SFTP), as defined by RFC 913, was proposed as an (unsecured) file transfer protocol with a level of complexity intermediate between TFTP and FTP. It was never widely accepted on the Internet, and is now assigned Historic status by the IETF. It runs through port 115, and often receives the initialism of SFTP. It has a command set of 11 commands and support three types of data transmission: ASCII, binary and continuous. For systems with a word size that is a multiple of 8 bits, the implementation of binary and continuous is the same. The protocol also supports login with user ID and password, hierarchical folders and file management (including rename, delete, upload, download, download with overwrite, and download with append).

FTPS

Explicit FTPS is an extension to the FTP standard that allows clients to request FTP sessions to be encrypted. This is done by sending the “AUTH TLS” command. The server has the option of allowing or denying connections that do not request TLS. This protocol extension is defined in RFC 4217. Implicit FTPS is an outdated standard for FTP that required the use of a SSL or TLS connection. It was specified to use different ports than plain FTP.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol(TFTP)

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a simple, lock-step FTP that allows a client to get a file from or put a file onto a remote host. One of its primary uses is in the early stages of booting from a local area network, because TFTP is very simple to implement. TFTP lacks security and most of the advanced features offered by more robust file transfer protocols such as File Transfer Protocol. TFTP was first standardized in 1981 and the current specification for the protocol can be found in RFC 1350.

 

 (Information collected from Wekipedia)