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网关和路由器之间的区别 网关是充当转换代理的计算机系统或设备。网关是两个系统之间的转换器,它们使用不同的通信协议,数据格式或语言,甚至是完全不同的体系结构。与简单传达信息的网桥不同,网关重新打包它们收到的信息以满足预期系统的需要。那么网关和路由器之间的区别是什么? 网关和路由器之间的区别如下: 路由器的作用是连接不同的网络并传输信息。根据用途,可分为:接入,企业级,骨干级,太比特,多WAN和3G无线等。 网关 网关可以是路由器,交换机或PC。对于同一网段内的通信,不必涉及网关。只有当主机和非本地网段设备通信时,才需要将所有数据包发送到网关设备,然后通过网关设备转发或路由它们。 路由器是一个网络层系统。一般来说,市场上的路由器分为两类,一类是单协议路由器,另一类是多协议路由器。路由器可以转换数据格式,成为与协议不同的网络互连的必要设备。 网关与路由的关系可以表示为:网关是网络连接的基础,路由是网络连接的桥梁。 路由器使用静态或动态路由来确定网络之间的最短路径。静态路由需要管理员手动设置,动态路由USES协议以动态发现网络之间的路径并确定最短路径。通常,静态路由用于小型网络,动态路由用于大型复杂网络。 现在,路由器集成了网关功能,因此路由器也具有网关功能。 网关和路由器之间的区别 从网关和路由器的定义来看,如果只连接两个网络,则只需要一个网关。 假设只有两个网络:网络A和网络B. 为了使网络A和网络B能够通信,只使用网关连接两个网络,因为只有两个网络,并且不需要确定网络之间的最短路径。 如果需要连接多个网络,为了确保网络的可靠性,需要将网络结构设计为完整网络或部分网络。通过这种方式,网络之间的通信需要两个设备,网关和路由器。由于当前路由器集成了网关的功能,因此只能使用一个设备路由器。

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The difference between a gateway and a router A gateway is a computer system or device that ACTS as a transformation agent. A gateway is a translator between two systems that use different communication protocols, data formats, or languages, or even completely different architectures. Unlike Bridges that simply convey information, gateways repackage the information...

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工业路由器的VPN VPN通常是指虚拟专用网络,它只是在公共网络上建立的专用网络,用于加密通信。 VPN功能是在加密数据包时实现目标地址转换和远程访问。因此,工业VPN路由器非常适合项目的数据传输安全要求。工业路由器是在普通路由器的基础上增加的工业要求,而工业VPN路由器是在工业路由器的基础上增加的VPN功能。为什么工业路由器会设置VPN功能?那么VPN功能的好处是什么? VPN工业路由器 VPNS允许您在复杂的公共网络中工作而无需担心安全性。当然,这也是工业VPN路由器的基本功能; 2.可以解决多台设备同时组网,随时使用VPN功能的问题。登录后不再需要繁琐的操作,并且需要连接每个设备。只要你切换网络,就可以选择使用或不使用VPN功能来达到开箱即用的效果; 3,一些连接设备联网,一些需要使用本地网络,一些使用VPN网络,这样可以错开使用; 4.工业VPN路由器可以连接多个终端和一个账号,不再担心VPN账号会限制连接终端的数量; 工业路由器 5.市场上大多数工业路由器已经支持VPN中的PPTP连接模式,而万无一失的操作设置不再是专家的专利。 VPN在工业,商业和民用领域非常受欢迎。它们可以使网络传输更安全,更专业,更自由。工业VPN路由器的分类工业VPN路由器的常见分类是PPTP,L2TP,IPSEC。最常见的是PPTP协议。如上所述,市场上的大多数工业路由器都具有PPTP安全协议,即点对点隧道协议。使远程用户能够通过拨入ISP,直接连接到Internet或通过其他网络安全地访问企业网络。...

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Why would industrial routers set up VPN capabilities Industrial router is the industrial version added on the basis of ordinary router, while industrial VPN router is the VPN function added on the basis of industrial router. VPN generally refers to a virtual private network, which is simply a private network established on a public network for encrypted communication. VPN...

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告别SIM卡,eSIM时代到来! SIM卡是(Subscriber Identification Module ),也称为用户身份识别卡、智能卡,GSM数字移动电话机必须装上此卡方能使用。 在电脑芯片上存储了数字移动电话客户的信息,加密的密钥以及用户的电话簿等内容,可供GSM网络客户身份进行鉴别,并对客户通话时的语音信息进行加密。 为解决SIM卡槽占用大量手机空间的难题,SIM的尺寸经历了三种变化: 标准卡:尺寸为...

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网关和路由器之间的区别

Category : 技术相关

网关是充当转换代理的计算机系统或设备。网关是两个系统之间的转换器,它们使用不同的通信协议,数据格式或语言,甚至是完全不同的体系结构。与简单传达信息的网桥不同,网关重新打包它们收到的信息以满足预期系统的需要。那么网关和路由器之间的区别是什么?

网关和路由器之间的区别如下:

路由器的作用是连接不同的网络并传输信息。根据用途,可分为:接入,企业级,骨干级,太比特,多WAN和3G无线等。

网关

网关可以是路由器,交换机或PC。对于同一网段内的通信,不必涉及网关。只有当主机和非本地网段设备通信时,才需要将所有数据包发送到网关设备,然后通过网关设备转发或路由它们。

路由器是一个网络层系统。一般来说,市场上的路由器分为两类,一类是单协议路由器,另一类是多协议路由器。路由器可以转换数据格式,成为与协议不同的网络互连的必要设备。

网关与路由的关系可以表示为:网关是网络连接的基础,路由是网络连接的桥梁。

路由器使用静态或动态路由来确定网络之间的最短路径。静态路由需要管理员手动设置,动态路由USES协议以动态发现网络之间的路径并确定最短路径。通常,静态路由用于小型网络,动态路由用于大型复杂网络。

现在,路由器集成了网关功能,因此路由器也具有网关功能。

网关和路由器之间的区别

从网关和路由器的定义来看,如果只连接两个网络,则只需要一个网关。

假设只有两个网络:网络A和网络B.

为了使网络A和网络B能够通信,只使用网关连接两个网络,因为只有两个网络,并且不需要确定网络之间的最短路径。

如果需要连接多个网络,为了确保网络的可靠性,需要将网络结构设计为完整网络或部分网络。通过这种方式,网络之间的通信需要两个设备,网关和路由器。由于当前路由器集成了网关的功能,因此只能使用一个设备路由器。

The difference between a gateway and a router

Category : 产品文章, 技术相关

A gateway is a computer system or device that ACTS as a transformation agent. A gateway is a translator between two systems that use different communication protocols, data formats, or languages, or even completely different architectures. Unlike Bridges that simply convey information, gateways repackage the information they receive to suit the needs of the intended system. So what’s the difference between a gateway and a router?

 

The differences between a gateway and a router are as follows:

 

The role of a router is to connect different networks and transmit information. According to usage, it can be divided into: access, enterprise level, backbone level, terabit, multi-WAN and 3G wireless, etc.

 

The gateway

 

A gateway can be a router, switch, or PC. For communication within the same network segment, it is not necessary to involve the gateway. Only when the host and non-local network segment devices communicate, it is necessary to send all the data packets to the gateway device, and then forward or route them through the gateway device.

 

Router is a network layer system. Generally speaking, routers in the market are divided into two categories, one is single-protocol router, and the other is multi-protocol router. The router can transform the data format and become a necessary device for network interconnection different from protocols.

 

The relationship between gateway and route can be expressed as: gateway is the foundation of network connection, and route is the bridge of network connection.

 

Routers use static or dynamic routing to determine the shortest path between networks. While static routing requires an administrator to set it manually, dynamic routing USES protocols to dynamically discover paths between networks and determine shortest paths. Typically, static routing is used for small networks and dynamic routing is used for large complex networks.

 

Now, routers integrate gateway functionality, so routers also have gateway functionality.

 

The difference between a gateway and a router

From the definition of gateway and router, if you simply connect two networks, you only need a gateway.

Suppose there are only two networks: network A and network B

To enable network A and network B to communicate, only use the gateway to connect the two networks, because there are only two networks, and do not need to determine the shortest path between the networks.

 

If multiple networks need to be connected, in order to ensure the reliability of the network, the network structure needs to be designed as a full network or a partial network. In this way, two devices, gateway and router, are needed for the communication between networks. Because the current router integrates the functions of the gateway, only one device, router, can be used.

The E-Lins H685 series 4G router with Ethernet is a compact, ruggedized 3G/4G/LTE cellular networking solution designed for mission-critical connectivity in the most challenging environments. It is qualified for M2M (Machine to Machine), IoT (Internet of Things) and In-Vehicle applications. Super mini size suitable for embedding applications.

In addition to the robustness, reliability, security, friendly-using, the H685 4G router with Ethernet is competent to be engineered to protect against extreme temperatures, humidity, shocks, vibrations, dust, reverse polarity, and transient voltage, which is widely used in more than twenty industrial fields, such as CCTV security surveillance, AMR, vehicle, retails, vending machines, power control, water schedule, traffic, oil field, weather forecast, environmental protection, street lamp control, post, bank and many other fields.

工业路由器的VPN

Category : 技术相关

VPN通常是指虚拟专用网络,它只是在公共网络上建立的专用网络,用于加密通信。 VPN功能是在加密数据包时实现目标地址转换和远程访问。因此,工业VPN路由器非常适合项目的数据传输安全要求。工业路由器是在普通路由器的基础上增加的工业要求,而工业VPN路由器是在工业路由器的基础上增加的VPN功能。为什么工业路由器会设置VPN功能?那么VPN功能的好处是什么?

VPN工业路由器

VPNS允许您在复杂的公共网络中工作而无需担心安全性。当然,这也是工业VPN路由器的基本功能;

2.可以解决多台设备同时组网,随时使用VPN功能的问题。登录后不再需要繁琐的操作,并且需要连接每个设备。只要你切换网络,就可以选择使用或不使用VPN功能来达到开箱即用的效果;

3,一些连接设备联网,一些需要使用本地网络,一些使用VPN网络,这样可以错开使用;

4.工业VPN路由器可以连接多个终端和一个账号,不再担心VPN账号会限制连接终端的数量;

工业路由器

5.市场上大多数工业路由器已经支持VPN中的PPTP连接模式,而万无一失的操作设置不再是专家的专利。

VPN在工业,商业和民用领域非常受欢迎。它们可以使网络传输更安全,更专业,更自由。工业VPN路由器的分类工业VPN路由器的常见分类是PPTP,L2TP,IPSEC。最常见的是PPTP协议。如上所述,市场上的大多数工业路由器都具有PPTP安全协议,即点对点隧道协议。使远程用户能够通过拨入ISP,直接连接到Internet或通过其他网络安全地访问企业网络。 L2TP是一种行业标准的VPN网络传输隧道协议,在功能上类似于PPTP协议。例如,它还可以加密网络数据流。

区别在于PPTP使用单个隧道,L2TP使用多个隧道。 L2TP提供数据包头压缩和隧道验证,而PPTP则不提供。 IPSEC安全协议通过端到端安全提供主动保护和防止攻击,端到端安全是安全网络的长期方向。在通信中,只有发送方和接收方是唯一知道IPSEC保护的计算机。 IPSec安全服务需要支持共享密钥以进行身份​​验证和机密性,并且需要手动输入密钥。如何设置工业VPN路由器不同品牌的工业VPN路由器有不同的设置,因为设置和内置网页设置都是由厂家制作的。但功能相同,设置大致相同。

配备以太网的伊林思 H685系列4G全网通路由器是一款紧凑,坚固的3G / 4G / LTE蜂窝网络解决方案,专为在最具挑战性的环境中的关键任务连接而设计。它适用于M2M(机器到机器),物联网(物联网)和车载应用。超迷你尺寸适合嵌入应用。

除了坚固性,可靠性,安全性,友好​​使用外,带有以太网的H685 4G全网通路由器能够设计用于防止极端温度,湿度,冲击,振动,灰尘,反极性和瞬态电压,这是广泛使用的在中央电视台安防监控,AMR,车辆,零售,自动售货机,电力控制,水上计划,交通,油田,天气预报,环境保护,路灯控制,邮政,银行等许多领域的二十多个工业领域。

告别SIM卡,eSIM时代到来!

Category : 产品文章, 技术相关

SIM卡是(Subscriber Identification Module ),也称为用户身份识别卡、智能卡,GSM数字移动电话机必须装上此卡方能使用。

在电脑芯片上存储了数字移动电话客户的信息,加密的密钥以及用户的电话簿等内容,可供GSM网络客户身份进行鉴别,并对客户通话时的语音信息进行加密。

解决SIM卡槽占用大量手机空间的难题SIM的尺寸经历了三种变化

标准卡:尺寸为 25mm×15mm×0.8mm

Micro Sim:俗称小卡,尺寸为12x15mm×0.8mm

Nano SIM:12.3mm×8.8mm×0.7mm

 

而如今随5G的到来,传统的SIM卡已经不能满足大众对于智能生活的需求,在这种情况下,eSIM应运而生。

 

eSIM卡,即Embedded-SIM,嵌入式SIM卡。eSIM卡的概念就是将传统SIM卡直接嵌入到设备芯片上,而不是作为独立的可移除零部件加入设备中,用户无需插入物理SIM卡,如同早年的小灵通。这一做法将允许用户更加灵活的选择运营商套餐,或者在无需解锁设备、购买新设备的前提下随时更换运营商。未来通用的eSIM标准建立将为普通消费者、企业用户节省更多移动设备使用成本,并带来更多的便利、安全性。

329日,中国联通宣布,全国范围内开通eSIM。这意味着eSIM将大规模走进公众视野。 

eSIM有什么好处?

1、不占空间,eSIM在制造过程中被嵌入到设备中,相比实体卡eSIM卡片能够节省更多的空间;

2、能适应异常恶劣的环境,与插拔式的传统SIM卡相比较设备集成的方式能够耐高温、防尘、抗震、具备适用面更广的电气特性;

3、灵活性灵活的选择运营商网络、OTA空中下载方式动态写入用户签约信息,可以实现产品销售后的用户自主激活;

4eSIM基于安全域的体系架构及PKI安全基础设施的引入,提供了更高的安全性。

综上,eSIM的优势不仅限于手机、可穿戴设备使用方便,它在优越性还体现在恶劣环境应用上。例如运行在高温、低温、高振动的环境中,设备插拔卡非常容易损坏,eSIM就能完美地解决这些问题。

例如工业路由器是一种,利用公用无线网络为用户提供无线的数据传输功能。已广泛应用于物联网产业链中的M2M行业,如智能电网、智能交通、智能家居、金融物联网无线通信路由器、移动POS终端、供应链自动化、工业自动化、智能建筑、消防、公共安全、环境保护、气象、数字化医疗、遥感勘测、农业、林业、水务、煤矿、石化等领域。通常它们需要工作在无人值守,甚至恶劣的天气下,在这种环境,eSIM的优势也给路由器带来福音。

 

伊林思科技的最新产品H900是一款双卡单模的4G/3G无线工业级路由器,最近已支持eSIM的应用。

其具备2LAN快速以太网口,2LAN千兆以太网口,及1WAN千兆以太网口,可选2.4Ghz+5Ghz双频WiFi,可支持POE,宽电压5-60V,串口等。具有多种工业级路由功能,可应用于多种工业场景。

The detailed difference between 4G industrial router and 4G DTU

Category : 产品文章, 技术相关

 

4G industrial router and 4G DTU both realize the wireless network data transmission function, and the differences between them are mainly from the use method, appearance interface and application environment, etc. Today, we will introduce some differences between 4G router and 4G DTU.

 

Different methods of use:

 

4G industrial router:

 

The 4G router can convert Ethernet and fieldbus communication protocols. It only needs to set the IP address specified by the 4G router in the terminal device as the gateway. If the specified IP address (or the specified IP address segment) is not set, the communication function cannot be realized.

 

4 g DTU:

 

The main purpose of 4G DTU is to realize dial-up rather than a real gateway. For example, 4G DTU can be used as a new network device after the dialing process of the access terminal device is completed, and the terminal device address can be used as the binding address of 4G DTU.

 

Different application environments:

 

4G router: usually with VPN/APN function, with private network encryption, in addition, the industrial 4G router with WIFI function is suitable for outdoor WIFI wireless signal coverage projects and similar public transport WIFI and shopping mall WIFI sharing projects.

 

4G DTU: the transmission distance of field terminals is relatively scattered and the data communication rate is relatively high, so the real-time performance of 4G DTU can meet the requirements of most industrial fields and is usually used for data acquisition and monitoring system. For example, the charging pile remote monitoring system, environmental monitoring system, real-time monitoring of energy consumption, monitoring and application of dam water conservancy projects, etc.

 

Different network interfaces:

 

4 g router: provides one network interface of data access, terminal equipment needs only the IP address of the mouth to the 4 g router in the network as a gateway to the IP address of the terminal device must use specified or specify the IP address in the address period, 4 g router to and specify the IP address of the server host or server host IP address sections for data exchange, and all the other 4 g router is not set between the address of the can’t communicate.

 

4 g DTU

 

4 g DTU: DTU data access in general also provides a serial port or network interface, but their use is used to dial, not used to do in the true sense of the gateway, such as serial interface 4 g DTU after completion of the access terminal dial-up, 4 g DTU as terminal equipment of a new network equipment, terminal equipment address using the new network equipment binding address; However, 4G DTU of network interface is similar to ADSL of telecommunication to connect to the Internet, which generally requires the device to complete a dial-up action.

 

Different anti-interference of server network:

 

When using 4G router, the data transmission must comply with the preset regulations, otherwise, the correct communication can not be carried out, reducing the possibility of unnecessary network traffic; At the same time, according to the sent serial number and other key processing, to ensure that the server data will not be replay or retransmission.

 

4G DTU does not carry out relevant filtering during data transmission, so other machines can directly send some illegal information to the device terminal through the network. Meanwhile, 4G DTU increases unnecessary network traffic. At the same time, the data is not processed accordingly, which may lead to the replay or retransmission of wireless data, which will lead to the abnormity of the system, thus causing potential security risks.

 

The E-Lins H685 series 4G router with Ethernet is a compact, ruggedized 3G/4G/LTE cellular networking solution designed for mission-critical connectivity in the most challenging environments. It is qualified for M2M (Machine to Machine), IoT (Internet of Things) and In-Vehicle applications. Super mini size suitable for embedding applications.

In addition to the robustness, reliability, security, friendly-using, the H685 4G router with Ethernet is competent to be engineered to protect against extreme temperatures, humidity, shocks, vibrations, dust, reverse polarity, and transient voltage, which is widely used in more than twenty industrial fields, such as CCTV security surveillance, AMR, vehicle, retails, vending machines, power control, water schedule, traffic, oil field, weather forecast, environmental protection, street lamp control, post, bank and many other fields.

 

Highlights:

Multi-carrier 2G/3G/4G LTE support with SIM card slot

Cellular/WAN RJ45/WiFi client failover and Load Balance (Bandwidth link bonding)

Supports LTE Advanced with SIM-based auto-carrier selection

Cloud-managed (with NMS network management system), TR-069, Web management, SMS, SSH/Telnet/Command, SNMP

WiFi (802.11 a/b/g/n, 2.4Ghz)

Certified 3G/4G/LTE enterprise/industrial grade internal modems

Built-in transient and reverse polarity voltage protection, over-current and over-voltage protection;

5-40V DC voltage input range (5-60V DC option), Dual Power Inputs / Power Failover;

POE (Power over Ethernet)

GPS / GNSS support

Serial Port

DI/DO port * 4

Supports Ethernet (T1, DSL, Cable, MetroE), WiFi as WAN, and Metro WiFi

Ruggedized to ensure always-on connectivity

Create real-time alerts to monitor uptime

Offer secure, guest WiFi to passengers

Advanced security, VPN, and stateful firewall to protect sensitive data

Robust Metal Case is ruggedized for vibration, shock

Desktop, Wall-mount and Din-rail mount of installation

External antenna connectors for high gain antennas replacement

MIMO supported

 

All E-Lins communication terminals can be connected to the E-Lins remote managing and controlling platform (NMS), which brings the generous devices scattering in different areas to carry out concentrate monitor, configuration, updated, diagnose, maintenance, manage and control. Highly reduce the maintenance costing in the operator, integrator, devise supplier etc, increase the managing efficiency.

Industrial-grade 4G router TCP/IP network architecture

Category : 技术相关

1. Layering of TCP/IP network system

 

TCP/IP (TransmissionControlProtocol/InternetProtocol), transmission control protocol/Internet protocol. It was developed by the defense advanced research projects agency in the 1970s, and was later integrated into UNIX and popularized. It emerged in the 1980s as the Internet’s communications protocol. With the continuous growth of the Internet, TCP/IP protocol also continues to develop, not only in the wide area network is widely used, in the LAN industry 4G wireless router TCP/IP protocol has replaced other protocols and become widely used protocol. Nowadays, TCP/IP protocol has become a common and universal network interconnection standard.

 

 

TCP/IP protocol is a layered protocol developed by the industrial 4G wireless router based on the OSI reference model.

 

 

The TCP/IP protocol hierarchy is basically designed according to the OSI reference model. Only in three layer on the layers of the TCP/IP protocol to the application layer of the OSI reference model, the presentation layer and session layer and unified into a single application layer, so that the 4 g industrial router function such as the representation of a data format, the establishment of the session and application software more closely together, compared with the OSI reference model is more practical and simple. Although we used to call the industrial GPRS router TCP/IP protocol, in fact it is not a single protocol, but a set of protocols, called the industrial CDMA router TCP/IP protocol family.

 

 

In the TCP/IP protocol family, each protocol is responsible for a part of the network data transmission and provides some aspect of the service for data transmission in the 4G router network. It is because of these protocols that work at all levels that the entire TCP/IP protocol family can effectively work together.

 

 

2. The characteristics and advantages of TCP/IP network system

 

 

In the long-term development process, 3G wireless router IP gradually replaced other networks. Here’s a simple explanation. 3G router IP transmits common data. Data can be used for any purpose and can easily replace data previously transmitted over proprietary data networks. Here’s a common process:

 

 

A proprietary network is developed for a specific purpose. If it works well, users will accept it.

 

 

To facilitate the provision of IP services, they are often used to access E-mail or chat, often through proprietary network tunneling in some way. The LTE router tunneling approach may initially be very ineffective.

The structure of 4G DTU

Category : 技术相关

The main function of DTU is to transmit data from remote devices back to the background center via wired/wireless. Different data transmission modes of DTU include all-network-connected DTU, GPRS DTU, WIFI DTU, CAN DTU and 4G DTU. Today, we will have a look at the structure and work flow of DTU.

 

To complete the data transmission needs to establish a complete data transmission system. In this system includes: DTU, customer equipment, mobile network, background center. On the front end, DTU is connected to the customer’s device via a 232 or 485 interface. Therefore, DTU alone cannot complete the wireless transmission of data, and it needs to be used together with background software. After establishing the connection, the front-end equipment and the back-end center can conduct wireless data transmission through DTU, and the transmission is two-way. The new generation of DTU has developed to varying degrees in terms of simple data collection, multimedia display and data processing.

 

GPRS DTU communication

 

GPRS DTU working process:

After GPRS DTU is powered on, it first reads the working parameters saved in internal FLASH (including GPRS dialing parameters, serial port baud rate, data center IP address, etc., which have been configured in advance).

 

GPRS DTU logs on to GSM network and then does the GPRS PPP dialing. Upon successful dialing, GPRS DTU receives an internal IP address (typically 10.x.x.x) randomly assigned by the mobile. That is, GPRS DTU is in a mobile Intranet, and its Intranet IP address is usually not fixed and changes with each dial. We can understand that GPRS DTU is a mobile internal LAN device, through the mobile gateway to achieve communication with the external Internet public network. This is similar to how a computer in a LAN accesses an external network through a gateway.

 

GPRS DTU initiatively initiates the communication connection with the data center and maintains the communication connection. Because GPRS DTU is in the mobile Intranet, and the IP address is not fixed. Therefore, only GPRS DTU can actively connect to the data center, and not the data center can actively connect to GPRS DTU. This requires the data center to have a fixed public network IP address or a fixed domain name. The public network IP address or fixed domain name of the data center is stored as a parameter in GPRS DTU, so that once GPRS DTU is powered up and successfully dialed, it can be actively connected to the data center.

 

Specifically, GPRS DTU initiates TCP or UDP communication requests to the data center through parameters such as the IP address of the data center (if the domain name of the data center is adopted, the IP address of the data center will be resolved through the domain name of the data center) and port number. Upon receiving the response from the center, GPRS DTU is deemed to have successfully shaken hands with the center, and then the communication connection is maintained. If the communication connection is interrupted, GPRS DTU will immediately shake hands with the center again.

Now that the TCP/UDP communication connection has been established, data two-way communication is possible.

 

GPRS DTU application

 

Wide application of DTU:

DTU has been widely used in electric power, environmental protection, LED information release, logistics, hydrology, meteorology and other industries. Although the application industry is different, but the principle of the application is the same. Most of them are connected with industrial equipment, such as PLC, SCM and other automation products, and then establish wireless communication connection with the background. Today, with the development of the Internet, DTU is more and more widely used. It provides help for the information and industrial integration among various industries. It has also gradually developed into the core technology of iot application.

What are the wireless connection technologies of the IoT

Category : 技术相关

Internet of things (iot) applications have been deeply rooted in our lives. The E-Lins H685 industrial-grade router is a small industrial-grade wireless router with single or double LAN ports. TDD/ fdd-lte, 4G, 3G, GPRS network optional. Besides, what are the wireless connectivity technologies for the Internet of things?

 

1. Ethernet

 

Ethernet is a LAN communication technology. The IEEE 802.3 standard, organized by the IEEE, establishes the technical standard for Ethernet. It specifies the content of the protocol including the connection of the physical layer, the electronic signal and the media access layer. Ethernet USES twisted pair cables as the transmission medium, which can cover up to 200 meters without relaying. The most popular Ethernet types have data transfer rates of 100Mb/s, while newer standards support rates of 1KMb/s and 10KMb/s.

 

The biggest advantage of Ethernet technology is that it is the most commonly used LAN technology and has gradually replaced other LAN standards such as token ring, FDDI and ARCNET. Now we are familiar with the Internet is all these large and small LAN connected together, the formation of a global network.

 

2. Serial communication technology

 

Serial port is a very generic interface for communication between devices and is also widely used for communication between devices and instrumentation. Common serial ports are rs-232 (using 25-pin or 9-pin connectors) and semi-duplex rs-485 and full-duplex rs-422 for industrial computer applications.

 

Serial communication USES serial mode for communication, that is, the serial port sends and receives byte sequences by bit. Typically, the serial port is used for the transmission of ASCII characters. Serial communication USES three wires: ground wire, sending and receiving. The serial communication can use the sending line to send data and the receiving line to receive data at the same time.

 

(1) Advantages

 

The biggest is a bit high penetration rate of serial communication, serial port to a PC or a standard, usually in order to convenient to connect printers, most of the industrial equipment has a serial port, who do not have a serial port devices, in its development, the common method is developed through a serial port to connect to the computer, so a serial port equipment is most simple and easy way to communicate.

 

It is also worth mentioning that the cost of serial communication is very low if the cable connecting the serial port is not considered.

 

(2) Disadvantages

 

The networking ability of serial port communication is poor. Although it is usually more stable than wireless, it is also vulnerable to the electromagnetic influence of the environment in which the cable is located in the industrial environment, resulting in unstable communication or even burnt out serial port. Serial Ethernet is still a long way off, and is generally only suitable for low speed and small data volumes.

 

3. Modbus

 

Unlike the previous communication technologies, Modbus is generally regarded as an application-layer protocol standard for serial communication, and does not include electrical specifications. Modbus was originally published by Modicon in 1979 for the use of programmable logic controller (PLC) communication. Later, three modes of Modbus RTU, Modbus ASCII and Modbus TCP were derived. The first two physical interfaces are the serial ports described above, and the latter one USES the Ethernet interface.

 

With the extensive application of PLC in the industrial field, Modbus has also become the most popular communication protocol in the industrial field. It adopts Master/Slave communication mode, namely one-to-many connection. One Master controller can support up to 247 Slave controllers.

 

(1) Advantages

 

The main advantages of Modbus are:

Standardization, open, free use, no license fee, no intellectual property authorization.

Supports a variety of electrical interfaces, such as serial and Ethernet interfaces, and a variety of transmission media, such as twisted pair, optical fiber, wireless, and so on.

 

The frame format of Modbus protocol is simple, compact and easy to understand. Easy to develop, easy to use.

 

(2) Disadvantages

Modbus mainly has the following problems:

Poor networking capability, only master – slave communication

Network size is limited by the number of slave controllers with poor security, no authentication and no permission management, plaintext transmission is very risky in an uncontrolled environment

 

4. GPRS

 

GPRS stands for General Packet Radio Service. GPRS is a long communication technology between a terminal and a communications base station.

 

Radio services first adopted analog communication technology, which became the first generation of Mobile communication technology, and later adopted digital communication technology, known as the second generation of Mobile communication technology. Among them, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most widely used and most successful. GSM is designed primarily for the transmission of voice, voice in transmission, exclusive a channel.

 

GPRS can be said to be a continuation of GSM. It transmits data in packet mode and does not monopolize channels. Therefore, idle channel resources on GSM can be better utilized. The transmission rate of GPRS can reach 56~114Kbps. Using this data service, users can connect to the communication base station of the telecom operator, and then connect to the Internet to obtain Internet information. Launched by the European telecommunications standards commission (ETSI), GPRS was handed over to the 3rd Generation Partnership Project, or 3GPP.

 

(1) Advantages

 

Because the coverage of GSM network signal is very wide, in fact, the area where GPRS service can be used is also very wide, which is the main advantage of GPRS technology.

 

Secondly, the GPRS terminal can roam freely within the signal coverage, and the developer does not need to develop any other communication equipment (the operator is responsible for it), which is convenient for users.

 

Finally, due to the popularity of mobile communication terminals, their costs have been greatly reduced. Therefore, the adoption of GPRS communication technology in the Internet of things has a greater advantage over Wi-Fi or ZigBee in hardware cost.

 

(2) Disadvantages

 

GPRS terminals use the infrastructure of telecom operators when communicating, so they have to pay a certain fee, namely data traffic fee, which limits a large number of devices to connect to the network.

 

The lower rate of GPRS is another problem.

GPRS communication quality is greatly affected by signal strength, and the communication effect is poor in areas without signal coverage or weak, which may affect the completion of service.

 

5. NFC

Near field communication Near field communication NFC is a short-range high-frequency radio technology, which belongs to the RFID technology. Its working frequency is 13.56MHz and its effective working distance is within 20cm. The transmission speed is 106Kb/s, 212Kb/s or 424Kb/s. Data is read and exchanged through card reader and point-to-point business model.

 

NFC was first developed in 2002 by Philips semiconductor, Nokia and SONY. In 2004, NFC BBS was established, dedicated to the standardization and promotion of near-field communication technology.

 

(1)     Advantages

 

NFC communication distance is very short, but the communication confidentiality is good.

 

NFC card no power consumption, card reader power consumption is low, can be applied to a lot of no power consumption, or low power application scenarios.

 

The cost of NFC solutions is low, especially the cost of NFC CARDS is very low, especially suitable for covering a large number of non-intelligent objects.

 

NFC communication technology is currently widely used in mobile payment and consumer electronics. For example, many mobile phones already support NFC applications, and micropayment systems such as bus CARDS all use NFC technology.

 

(2) Disadvantages

 

The NFC does not carry the risk of eavesdropping on the wireless signals of other wireless communications, but the simplicity of its NFC card and the design of its passive response are also factors of insecurity. The risk of seeing reports: that the transaction information in an NFC card, for example, could easily be read by other card readers, or even a smartphone.

 

In addition, short communication distance and low communication rate are also its disadvantages, which limit the NFC to be only suitable for certain iot applications.

 

6. LoRa

 

LoRa comes from the word Long Range, which is a communication technology for long-distance communication. LoRa technology, based on linear Chirp spread spectrum modulation, continues the low-power characteristics of FSK modulation, but greatly increases the communication range. Chirp spread spectrum modulation has long distance transmission and good anti-interference performance, and has been used in military and aerospace communications for many years. In extreme cases, LoRa’s single gateway or base station can cover an entire city or tens of kilometers.

 

(1) application scenarios of LoRa

 

Typical scenarios for LoRa applications include very long battery life (a few years), long-distance communication between nodes, and low rates (such as just a few data transfers per hour). As with NB-iot, low power metrics can be sacrificed to increase speed.

 

Cascade and stack of industrial-grade 4G routers

Category : 技术相关

The most basic star Ethernet architecture, the actual star enterprise network may be much more complex than this. This renaturation is not only reflected in how high-end network equipment, how complex configuration, more importantly, the performance of network switching level is more complex. Industrial routers and firewalls in enterprise networks typically require only one, but industrial 4G routers are usually more than one (except for small networks with around 20 users). If you have a large number of users, say hundreds or even thousands, you will have to rely on cascading or stack extension connections from industrial-grade routers.

 

But cascading and stack technologies are also different, and their scope of application is different. Industrial 4G router cascade refers to the expansion of the whole network router and the whole network connection router through switching ports, which not only solves the problem of insufficient port number of a single industrial LTE router, but also solves the connection between the client and network equipment far away from the computer room. Because single-segment switched double-stranded Ethernet cables can reach 100 meters, each cascade of industrial-grade LTE routers can extend the distance by 100 meters.

 

However, this does not mean that it can be arbitrarily cascade, because the line is too long, on the one hand, the attenuation of the signal on the line is more, on the other hand, after all, the lower the level of industrial network router or sharing a port available bandwidth of the superior switch, the more the level, the lower the available bandwidth of the final client will be (although you may be using a 100-megabyte industrial network router), which has a great impact on the network connection performance, so from a practical point of view, it is recommended to deploy the industrial router of the whole network at most, that is, the core industrial router – second level industrial router – third level all-network router.

 

The level 3 here does not mean that only three industrial level full netcom routers can be allowed, but only three levels from the level. The ports used for hierarchical connection can be specialized UpLink ports or ordinary switching ports. Some full-netcom industrial routers have dedicated cascading (UpLink) ports, but some don’t. If there is a specialized cascading port, it is best used because its bandwidth is usually wider than that of a normal switching port, further ensuring the bandwidth of a lower-level, all-network-enabled, industrial-grade router. If not, it can only be cascaded through normal switching ports.

The difference between 4G router and 4G DTU

Category : 技术相关

4G industrial wireless router and 4G DTU are also used for wireless network data transmission of industrial equipment. But there are also significant differences between the two, and the differences between the two are mainly from the appearance of the interface, the use of methods and the application environment.

 

1. Appearance interface the appearance interface of 4G router usually has a network port, which provides wireless networking functions for the network port devices and requires the network port devices to actively access the center to complete data transmission. In general, 4G router will provide a variety of network interface modes of WAN port, LAN or freely switched WAN/LAN port, which can be customized to match the interface according to the connection mode in the project.

 

The external interface of 4G DTU generally only provides the networking mode of serial port interface. 4G DTU is mainly used for two-way transmission between serial port data and IP data. And some projects need to use both the network port, but also need to use the serial port how to do? In the current era of rapid technological development, 4G router and 4G DTU function have been integrated.

 

2. Methods 4G router can be used to convert Ethernet and fieldbus communication protocols. Only the IP address specified by 4G router needs to be set in the terminal device as the gateway. If the specified IP address (or the specified IP address segment) is not set, the communication function cannot be implemented. The primary purpose of 4G DTU is to achieve dial-up, not gateway in the real sense. For example, 4G DTU can be used as a new network device after dialing into the terminal device, and the terminal device address can use this 4G DTU binding address.

 

3. 4G router in the application environment usually has VPN/APN function and private network encryption. In addition, industrial 4G router with WIFI function is suitable for outdoor WIFI wireless signal coverage projects and similar public transport WIFI and mall WIFI sharing projects. However, 4G DTU is applied in the field terminal with scattered transmission distance and high data communication rate, so the real-time performance of 4G DTU can meet the requirements of most industrial fields and is usually used for data acquisition and monitoring system. Such as charging pile remote monitoring system, environmental monitoring system, real-time monitoring of energy consumption, dam water conservancy project monitoring application.

 

4. Data access interface of terminal equipment

4 g router provides one network interface of data access, terminal equipment needs only the IP address of the mouth to the 4 g router in the network as a gateway to the IP address of the terminal device must use specified or specify the IP address in the address period, 4 g router to specify the server hostname or IP address of the IP address of the server host for data exchange, and all the other 4 g router is not set between the address of the can’t communicate.

 

5. 4 g DTU data access generally also provides a serial port or network interface, but their use is used to dial, not used to do in the true sense of the gateway, such as serial interface 4 g DTU after completion of the access terminal dial-up, 4 g DTU as terminal equipment of a new network equipment, terminal equipment address using the new network equipment binding address; The 4G DTU of the network interface is similar to the ADSL of telecommunications, which requires the device to complete a dial-up action.

 

6. IP address used by the terminal device

The IP address used by terminal devices using 4G routers is any IP address that can be set by itself or in the IP address segment, which is also different from the IP address assigned by the UIM card.

The IP address used by terminal devices using 4G DTU is generally the IP address assigned by UIM card dialing (which is specified by 3A).

 

7. Transmission security of terminal equipment

Terminal devices using 4G routers must use the specified IP address, and any other address cannot communicate. After the data of the terminal device passes through the 4G router, the content transmitted through the wireless network is encrypted. Generally, the data transmitted in the intercepted wireless network cannot be decrypted, and the encrypted data can only be decrypted correctly by the designated communication server. At the same time, there is a unique corresponding serial number and other key processing for all data. 4G router guarantees that the terminal device data will not be replayed or resent.

Using 4 g DTU terminal device using IP address would not have such restrictions, so just can assign IP addresses can and to communicate with the server system, terminal equipment data after 4 g DTU, use the wireless network to transmit the contents of the general only through IP head processing, intercept wireless network transmission of data simply remove header information can speak transmission data display; At the same time, the data are not processed accordingly. 4G DTU may lead to the replay or retransmission of wireless data, which will lead to abnormal system, thus causing potential security risks.

 

8. Wireless access security

Using 4 g router data exchange is using a wireless router and communication between the server to establish the safety of the tunnel, all of the data exchange can be to end (terminal) to end (server), and any other middle to end data are cannot communicate effectively, that is to say, at the ends of the wireless network provider will not be able to enter any system.

4G DTU data exchange USES the data exchange process within the wireless network provider, which enables the wireless network provider to easily access any system at both ends of the communication.

 

9. Anti-interference of terminal equipment

Core system USES 4 g router is embedded operating system, only can use very little data port, and the relationship between the terminal equipment is only a routing, so terminal equipment cannot reach the other end, even not be able to access other terminal equipment of the same type, even if there is a terminal device is controlled by a virus or by an outsider, is only affect the a terminal device, the other is not affected.

Terminal devices using 4G DTU are related to 4G DTU and can easily access other terminal devices. If one terminal device is controlled by a virus or an outsider, all terminal devices and the central server system will be seriously threatened.

 

10. Equipment status monitoring

4G router can monitor the status at the same time, and basically know where the problem is and the corresponding solutions through log information.

When using 4G DTU, the status monitoring cannot be carried out, so when encountering problems, it will take much trouble or trouble to check.

 

11. server network routing Settings

When using 4G router to access the terminal device, it is necessary to add a 4G router from the server to the terminal device and use the communication server as the gateway, thus reducing the complexity of the network.

When using 4G DTU to access the terminal device in the server, it is to add a route to the terminal device in the server with the access interface of the wireless network provider as the gateway (or related route).

 

12. Anti-interference of server network

When using 4G router, the data transmission must conform to the preset regulations, otherwise, the communication cannot be carried out correctly, reducing the possibility of unnecessary network traffic. At the same time, according to the sent serial number and other key processing, to ensure that the server data will not be replay or resend.

4G DTU does not carry out relevant filtering during data transmission, so other machines can directly send some illegal information to the device terminal through the network. Meanwhile, 4G DTU increases unnecessary network traffic. At the same time, the data is not processed accordingly, which may lead to the replay or retransmission of wireless data, which will lead to the abnormal system, thus causing security risks.

 

13. Data compression and transmission

4G routers can compress large packets before transmitting, thus reducing network traffic, increasing network bandwidth and improving data transmission efficiency (except for images and images with high compression ratio).

4G DTU generally does not compress data during data transmission.

 

14. Processing of exchange data

Communication server is the core of 4G router, so there must be one host installed on the center server side for 4G router to communicate with. All data exchanged between devices must be encrypted, decrypted, verified and routed by it. There are no other intermediate servers in 4G DTU, but directly connect to the center server.