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What's the difference between an industrial wireless... Terminal devices have different data access interfaces Wireless router provides one network interface of data access, terminal equipment need only with the network IP address as a gateway to the IP address of the terminal device must use specified or specify the IP address in the address period, and specify the IP address...

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VRRP function on industrial grade router VRRP is a selection protocol that dynamically assigns the responsibilities of a virtual router to one of the VRRP routers on the LAN. The VRRP router, which controls the virtual router's IP address, is called the master router and it forwards packets to these virtual IP addresses. Once the primary router is unavailable,...

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工业网关的功能组成 网关(Gateway)又称网间连接器、协议转换器。网关在网络层以上实现网络互连,是最复杂的网络互连设备,仅用于两个高层协议不同的网络互连。网关既可以用于广域网互连,也可以用于局域网互连。 网关是一种充当转换重任的计算机系统或设备。使用在不同的通信协议、数据格式或语言,甚至体系结构完全不同的两种系统之间,网关是一个翻译器。与网桥只是简单地传达信息不同,网关对收到的信息要重新打包,以适应目的系统的需求。 4G工业网关的基本功能是连接两个异构网络,这在工业物联网场景中尤为常见,因为传感器网络经常使用完全不同于普通网络层(长距离传输网络)的电信号和协议。   4G工业网关功能组成   网络层信号接口 它主要承担网络层信号的对接任务。与感知层信号接口相比,网络层信号接口一般简单得多,因为通常整个系统只需要一个标准的长途网络及其协议,因此相应的硬件接口和数据收发软件相对简单。然而,这并不是说它只能支持一种类型。在实际应用中,工业网关的制造商通常被设计为支持多种形式的长途网络,以实现产品的通用性。特定的表单可以是同时配置多个接口的方式,也可以以配置插件卡的形式设计产品,以便用户可以在离开工厂时选择要配置的不同配置。   传感层信号接口 主要负责传感器网络中各设备信号的对接工作。该模块包括用于不同电信号对接的硬件接口,以及相应的数据采集和指令发送软件。为了解决感知层的复杂性,工业网关厂商将根据各自的目标应用领域,装备感知层信号接口的硬件接口和协议组合。   就地数据库 在一些用于复杂数据处理流程或其他就地业务逻辑处理的场景中,处理后的数据还需要存储在网关本地数据库中。由于工业网关一般属于嵌入式计算设备,所以这类数据库也一般采用嵌入式数据库。嵌入式数据库功能简单,具有内存缓冲,提高了访问速度。   就地的业务逻辑 它主要处理与网关相关的传感器网络部分所连接的设备、传感器和执行器相关的本地系统的业务逻辑。不同网关的本地业务逻辑模块的丰富性和复杂性差异很大。如果工业网关中没有这样的功能模块,它通常被称为数据传输网关、协议转换器或通信管理器。有关就地业务逻辑的详细描述,请参见边缘计算。   数据处理 设备端数据处理主要解决数据不匹配问题。也就是说,服务器所需数据的范围、频率、完整性等等。数据处理的目的是对输入接口中的数据进行排序,将其转换为适合输出的数据形式,并将其推送到输出接口。输入端和输出端可以由设备端或服务器端播放,因此数据流是双向的,并且根据数据类型的不同而不同。   其他功能 除了上面的主要模块之外,网关还常常配置它的功能用户界面,要么使用按钮、命令行(通过Telnet或串口),要么使用图形界面(例如内置的WEB服务器,甚至面板)。如果网关具有适当的业务逻辑,它可能还需要工具来加载脚本文件、配置文件,等等,这些都是本地业务逻辑所需要的。 作为一种远程设备,4G工业网关的自我维护也非常重要。一般情况下,需要利用自己与服务器连接的优势,从服务器上自动下载自己的软件更新包并完成更新。还应通过远程登录完成部分设置和配置工作,以降低外派人员的现场维护成本,提高对用户需求的响应速度。

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Functional composition of 4G industrial gateway The basic function of the 4G industrial gateway is to connect the two heterogeneous networks, which is particularly common in the industrial Internet of things scenario, because the sensor network often USES completely different electrical signals and protocols from the common network layer (long distance transmission network).   4G...

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网关和路由器之间的区别 网关是充当转换代理的计算机系统或设备。网关是两个系统之间的转换器,它们使用不同的通信协议,数据格式或语言,甚至是完全不同的体系结构。与简单传达信息的网桥不同,网关重新打包它们收到的信息以满足预期系统的需要。那么网关和路由器之间的区别是什么? 网关和路由器之间的区别如下: 路由器的作用是连接不同的网络并传输信息。根据用途,可分为:接入,企业级,骨干级,太比特,多WAN和3G无线等。 网关 网关可以是路由器,交换机或PC。对于同一网段内的通信,不必涉及网关。只有当主机和非本地网段设备通信时,才需要将所有数据包发送到网关设备,然后通过网关设备转发或路由它们。 路由器是一个网络层系统。一般来说,市场上的路由器分为两类,一类是单协议路由器,另一类是多协议路由器。路由器可以转换数据格式,成为与协议不同的网络互连的必要设备。 网关与路由的关系可以表示为:网关是网络连接的基础,路由是网络连接的桥梁。 路由器使用静态或动态路由来确定网络之间的最短路径。静态路由需要管理员手动设置,动态路由USES协议以动态发现网络之间的路径并确定最短路径。通常,静态路由用于小型网络,动态路由用于大型复杂网络。 现在,路由器集成了网关功能,因此路由器也具有网关功能。 网关和路由器之间的区别 从网关和路由器的定义来看,如果只连接两个网络,则只需要一个网关。 假设只有两个网络:网络A和网络B. 为了使网络A和网络B能够通信,只使用网关连接两个网络,因为只有两个网络,并且不需要确定网络之间的最短路径。 如果需要连接多个网络,为了确保网络的可靠性,需要将网络结构设计为完整网络或部分网络。通过这种方式,网络之间的通信需要两个设备,网关和路由器。由于当前路由器集成了网关的功能,因此只能使用一个设备路由器。

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The structure of 4G DTU

Category : 技术相关

The main function of DTU is to transmit data from remote devices back to the background center via wired/wireless. Different data transmission modes of DTU include all-network-connected DTU, GPRS DTU, WIFI DTU, CAN DTU and 4G DTU. Today, we will have a look at the structure and work flow of DTU.

 

To complete the data transmission needs to establish a complete data transmission system. In this system includes: DTU, customer equipment, mobile network, background center. On the front end, DTU is connected to the customer’s device via a 232 or 485 interface. Therefore, DTU alone cannot complete the wireless transmission of data, and it needs to be used together with background software. After establishing the connection, the front-end equipment and the back-end center can conduct wireless data transmission through DTU, and the transmission is two-way. The new generation of DTU has developed to varying degrees in terms of simple data collection, multimedia display and data processing.

 

GPRS DTU communication

 

GPRS DTU working process:

After GPRS DTU is powered on, it first reads the working parameters saved in internal FLASH (including GPRS dialing parameters, serial port baud rate, data center IP address, etc., which have been configured in advance).

 

GPRS DTU logs on to GSM network and then does the GPRS PPP dialing. Upon successful dialing, GPRS DTU receives an internal IP address (typically 10.x.x.x) randomly assigned by the mobile. That is, GPRS DTU is in a mobile Intranet, and its Intranet IP address is usually not fixed and changes with each dial. We can understand that GPRS DTU is a mobile internal LAN device, through the mobile gateway to achieve communication with the external Internet public network. This is similar to how a computer in a LAN accesses an external network through a gateway.

 

GPRS DTU initiatively initiates the communication connection with the data center and maintains the communication connection. Because GPRS DTU is in the mobile Intranet, and the IP address is not fixed. Therefore, only GPRS DTU can actively connect to the data center, and not the data center can actively connect to GPRS DTU. This requires the data center to have a fixed public network IP address or a fixed domain name. The public network IP address or fixed domain name of the data center is stored as a parameter in GPRS DTU, so that once GPRS DTU is powered up and successfully dialed, it can be actively connected to the data center.

 

Specifically, GPRS DTU initiates TCP or UDP communication requests to the data center through parameters such as the IP address of the data center (if the domain name of the data center is adopted, the IP address of the data center will be resolved through the domain name of the data center) and port number. Upon receiving the response from the center, GPRS DTU is deemed to have successfully shaken hands with the center, and then the communication connection is maintained. If the communication connection is interrupted, GPRS DTU will immediately shake hands with the center again.

Now that the TCP/UDP communication connection has been established, data two-way communication is possible.

 

GPRS DTU application

 

Wide application of DTU:

DTU has been widely used in electric power, environmental protection, LED information release, logistics, hydrology, meteorology and other industries. Although the application industry is different, but the principle of the application is the same. Most of them are connected with industrial equipment, such as PLC, SCM and other automation products, and then establish wireless communication connection with the background. Today, with the development of the Internet, DTU is more and more widely used. It provides help for the information and industrial integration among various industries. It has also gradually developed into the core technology of iot application.

What are the wireless connection technologies of the IoT

Category : 技术相关

Internet of things (iot) applications have been deeply rooted in our lives. The E-Lins H685 industrial-grade router is a small industrial-grade wireless router with single or double LAN ports. TDD/ fdd-lte, 4G, 3G, GPRS network optional. Besides, what are the wireless connectivity technologies for the Internet of things?

 

1. Ethernet

 

Ethernet is a LAN communication technology. The IEEE 802.3 standard, organized by the IEEE, establishes the technical standard for Ethernet. It specifies the content of the protocol including the connection of the physical layer, the electronic signal and the media access layer. Ethernet USES twisted pair cables as the transmission medium, which can cover up to 200 meters without relaying. The most popular Ethernet types have data transfer rates of 100Mb/s, while newer standards support rates of 1KMb/s and 10KMb/s.

 

The biggest advantage of Ethernet technology is that it is the most commonly used LAN technology and has gradually replaced other LAN standards such as token ring, FDDI and ARCNET. Now we are familiar with the Internet is all these large and small LAN connected together, the formation of a global network.

 

2. Serial communication technology

 

Serial port is a very generic interface for communication between devices and is also widely used for communication between devices and instrumentation. Common serial ports are rs-232 (using 25-pin or 9-pin connectors) and semi-duplex rs-485 and full-duplex rs-422 for industrial computer applications.

 

Serial communication USES serial mode for communication, that is, the serial port sends and receives byte sequences by bit. Typically, the serial port is used for the transmission of ASCII characters. Serial communication USES three wires: ground wire, sending and receiving. The serial communication can use the sending line to send data and the receiving line to receive data at the same time.

 

(1) Advantages

 

The biggest is a bit high penetration rate of serial communication, serial port to a PC or a standard, usually in order to convenient to connect printers, most of the industrial equipment has a serial port, who do not have a serial port devices, in its development, the common method is developed through a serial port to connect to the computer, so a serial port equipment is most simple and easy way to communicate.

 

It is also worth mentioning that the cost of serial communication is very low if the cable connecting the serial port is not considered.

 

(2) Disadvantages

 

The networking ability of serial port communication is poor. Although it is usually more stable than wireless, it is also vulnerable to the electromagnetic influence of the environment in which the cable is located in the industrial environment, resulting in unstable communication or even burnt out serial port. Serial Ethernet is still a long way off, and is generally only suitable for low speed and small data volumes.

 

3. Modbus

 

Unlike the previous communication technologies, Modbus is generally regarded as an application-layer protocol standard for serial communication, and does not include electrical specifications. Modbus was originally published by Modicon in 1979 for the use of programmable logic controller (PLC) communication. Later, three modes of Modbus RTU, Modbus ASCII and Modbus TCP were derived. The first two physical interfaces are the serial ports described above, and the latter one USES the Ethernet interface.

 

With the extensive application of PLC in the industrial field, Modbus has also become the most popular communication protocol in the industrial field. It adopts Master/Slave communication mode, namely one-to-many connection. One Master controller can support up to 247 Slave controllers.

 

(1) Advantages

 

The main advantages of Modbus are:

Standardization, open, free use, no license fee, no intellectual property authorization.

Supports a variety of electrical interfaces, such as serial and Ethernet interfaces, and a variety of transmission media, such as twisted pair, optical fiber, wireless, and so on.

 

The frame format of Modbus protocol is simple, compact and easy to understand. Easy to develop, easy to use.

 

(2) Disadvantages

Modbus mainly has the following problems:

Poor networking capability, only master – slave communication

Network size is limited by the number of slave controllers with poor security, no authentication and no permission management, plaintext transmission is very risky in an uncontrolled environment

 

4. GPRS

 

GPRS stands for General Packet Radio Service. GPRS is a long communication technology between a terminal and a communications base station.

 

Radio services first adopted analog communication technology, which became the first generation of Mobile communication technology, and later adopted digital communication technology, known as the second generation of Mobile communication technology. Among them, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most widely used and most successful. GSM is designed primarily for the transmission of voice, voice in transmission, exclusive a channel.

 

GPRS can be said to be a continuation of GSM. It transmits data in packet mode and does not monopolize channels. Therefore, idle channel resources on GSM can be better utilized. The transmission rate of GPRS can reach 56~114Kbps. Using this data service, users can connect to the communication base station of the telecom operator, and then connect to the Internet to obtain Internet information. Launched by the European telecommunications standards commission (ETSI), GPRS was handed over to the 3rd Generation Partnership Project, or 3GPP.

 

(1) Advantages

 

Because the coverage of GSM network signal is very wide, in fact, the area where GPRS service can be used is also very wide, which is the main advantage of GPRS technology.

 

Secondly, the GPRS terminal can roam freely within the signal coverage, and the developer does not need to develop any other communication equipment (the operator is responsible for it), which is convenient for users.

 

Finally, due to the popularity of mobile communication terminals, their costs have been greatly reduced. Therefore, the adoption of GPRS communication technology in the Internet of things has a greater advantage over Wi-Fi or ZigBee in hardware cost.

 

(2) Disadvantages

 

GPRS terminals use the infrastructure of telecom operators when communicating, so they have to pay a certain fee, namely data traffic fee, which limits a large number of devices to connect to the network.

 

The lower rate of GPRS is another problem.

GPRS communication quality is greatly affected by signal strength, and the communication effect is poor in areas without signal coverage or weak, which may affect the completion of service.

 

5. NFC

Near field communication Near field communication NFC is a short-range high-frequency radio technology, which belongs to the RFID technology. Its working frequency is 13.56MHz and its effective working distance is within 20cm. The transmission speed is 106Kb/s, 212Kb/s or 424Kb/s. Data is read and exchanged through card reader and point-to-point business model.

 

NFC was first developed in 2002 by Philips semiconductor, Nokia and SONY. In 2004, NFC BBS was established, dedicated to the standardization and promotion of near-field communication technology.

 

(1)     Advantages

 

NFC communication distance is very short, but the communication confidentiality is good.

 

NFC card no power consumption, card reader power consumption is low, can be applied to a lot of no power consumption, or low power application scenarios.

 

The cost of NFC solutions is low, especially the cost of NFC CARDS is very low, especially suitable for covering a large number of non-intelligent objects.

 

NFC communication technology is currently widely used in mobile payment and consumer electronics. For example, many mobile phones already support NFC applications, and micropayment systems such as bus CARDS all use NFC technology.

 

(2) Disadvantages

 

The NFC does not carry the risk of eavesdropping on the wireless signals of other wireless communications, but the simplicity of its NFC card and the design of its passive response are also factors of insecurity. The risk of seeing reports: that the transaction information in an NFC card, for example, could easily be read by other card readers, or even a smartphone.

 

In addition, short communication distance and low communication rate are also its disadvantages, which limit the NFC to be only suitable for certain iot applications.

 

6. LoRa

 

LoRa comes from the word Long Range, which is a communication technology for long-distance communication. LoRa technology, based on linear Chirp spread spectrum modulation, continues the low-power characteristics of FSK modulation, but greatly increases the communication range. Chirp spread spectrum modulation has long distance transmission and good anti-interference performance, and has been used in military and aerospace communications for many years. In extreme cases, LoRa’s single gateway or base station can cover an entire city or tens of kilometers.

 

(1) application scenarios of LoRa

 

Typical scenarios for LoRa applications include very long battery life (a few years), long-distance communication between nodes, and low rates (such as just a few data transfers per hour). As with NB-iot, low power metrics can be sacrificed to increase speed.

 

The use of industrial wireless routers

Category : 其他

Industrial-grade wireless router adopts high performance 32-bit industrial-grade ARM9 communication processor, which is widely used in finance, electric power, postal, water conservancy, environmental protection, meteorology and other industries.

 

Industrial router is mainly used in intelligent transportation, environmental monitoring, security monitoring, security, wireless mobile detection, industrial data transmission, the financial industry, power industry, water conservancy industry, etc., support – 30 ℃ + 75 ℃ temperature, wide application. And civil routing is mainly family indoor use, so the adaptability to environment requirement is not high, the temperature only for 0 ~ 55 ℃.

 

The industrial router adopts rugged industrial appearance design, IP30 protection, built-in high-performance industrial-grade 32-bit communication processor wireless module, with embedded real-time operating system as the software support platform, and can be connected to serial devices, Ethernet devices or WIFI devices at the same time.

 

Support APN/VPDN private network, at the same time the device has IPSEC, PPTP, L2TP, GRE, OPENVPN VPN connection, with VPN client, server and other functions. Civil route even some do not have firewall, data security is low.

 

Why are industrial-grade routers so popular

 

In the industrial environment, due to the increasing demand for transmission speed and data volume, industrial-grade products are widely used to ensure more high-speed and smooth data exchange. After careful analysis of today’s connector supply market, shenzhen e-lins is an M2M wireless communication backbone enterprise, which mainly provides: industrial wireless router, wireless data terminal,GPRS DTU,CDMA DTU,3G router,4G router, etc.

 

Manufacturers are struggling to resist the onslaught of wireless technology. Wireless technology is now used in PCS and communications devices, and is favored in industry, medicine and automobiles. Wi-fi and bluetooth are popular; Wireless USB, ZigBee and RFID are gaining momentum, especially in consumer electronics, PC and communications.

 

The strong growth of the global mobile Internet device market, which is forecast to grow at a compound annual rate of up to 167 per cent over the next five years, will spur further adoption of wi-fi, bluetooth and ultra-broadband.

 

Despite the impact of wireless technology, PLC, industrial router, switch, DTU equipment and RTU equipment are still the trend of the future.

 

Industrial-grade wireless routers

 

As an industrial-grade router, the industrial-grade 4G router is more powerful than the ordinary household router in many aspects. Generally speaking, the well-known industrial-grade 4G router has the following advantages in the use process.

 

1. High stability

 

One of the major advantages of industrial-grade 4G routers is their high stability in data transmission and reception. It USES high performance industrial-grade wireless modules and industrial-grade high stability and high precision components, so that it can resist outdoor harsh environment without data transmission interruption or loss.

 

2. Fast data transmission and processing

 

Compared with ordinary routers, industrial-grade 4G routers use high-performance CPU processors, so they can transmit and process data several times faster than ordinary routers. They can satisfy more people to connect to the network at the same time, and the transmission distance is longer and the coverage is larger.

 

3. Powerful functions

 

Advanced industrial-grade 4G routers have more powerful functions than ordinary routers. For the average home router, the function is simple as long as it can connect to the network normally. But for industrial control industry, routers need more functions to run normally. Industrial-grade 4G routers have corresponding functions to meet the needs of different fields. If other special functions are needed, you can also choose customized products.

 

The main advantages of the industrial-grade 4G router are its high stability, fast data processing speed and powerful functions. In addition, the number of ports it provides and the strong wireless signal receiving ability are also its own advantages. Because industrial-grade 4G routers are often used in high-end fields or in complex outdoor conditions, they must have more functions and advantages to meet people’s needs.

Cascade and stack of industrial-grade 4G routers

Category : 技术相关

The most basic star Ethernet architecture, the actual star enterprise network may be much more complex than this. This renaturation is not only reflected in how high-end network equipment, how complex configuration, more importantly, the performance of network switching level is more complex. Industrial routers and firewalls in enterprise networks typically require only one, but industrial 4G routers are usually more than one (except for small networks with around 20 users). If you have a large number of users, say hundreds or even thousands, you will have to rely on cascading or stack extension connections from industrial-grade routers.

 

But cascading and stack technologies are also different, and their scope of application is different. Industrial 4G router cascade refers to the expansion of the whole network router and the whole network connection router through switching ports, which not only solves the problem of insufficient port number of a single industrial LTE router, but also solves the connection between the client and network equipment far away from the computer room. Because single-segment switched double-stranded Ethernet cables can reach 100 meters, each cascade of industrial-grade LTE routers can extend the distance by 100 meters.

 

However, this does not mean that it can be arbitrarily cascade, because the line is too long, on the one hand, the attenuation of the signal on the line is more, on the other hand, after all, the lower the level of industrial network router or sharing a port available bandwidth of the superior switch, the more the level, the lower the available bandwidth of the final client will be (although you may be using a 100-megabyte industrial network router), which has a great impact on the network connection performance, so from a practical point of view, it is recommended to deploy the industrial router of the whole network at most, that is, the core industrial router – second level industrial router – third level all-network router.

 

The level 3 here does not mean that only three industrial level full netcom routers can be allowed, but only three levels from the level. The ports used for hierarchical connection can be specialized UpLink ports or ordinary switching ports. Some full-netcom industrial routers have dedicated cascading (UpLink) ports, but some don’t. If there is a specialized cascading port, it is best used because its bandwidth is usually wider than that of a normal switching port, further ensuring the bandwidth of a lower-level, all-network-enabled, industrial-grade router. If not, it can only be cascaded through normal switching ports.