Prev

Next

What's the difference between an industrial wireless... Terminal devices have different data access interfaces Wireless router provides one network interface of data access, terminal equipment need only with the network IP address as a gateway to the IP address of the terminal device must use specified or specify the IP address in the address period, and specify the IP address...

更多文章

VRRP function on industrial grade router VRRP is a selection protocol that dynamically assigns the responsibilities of a virtual router to one of the VRRP routers on the LAN. The VRRP router, which controls the virtual router's IP address, is called the master router and it forwards packets to these virtual IP addresses. Once the primary router is unavailable,...

更多文章

工业网关的功能组成 网关(Gateway)又称网间连接器、协议转换器。网关在网络层以上实现网络互连,是最复杂的网络互连设备,仅用于两个高层协议不同的网络互连。网关既可以用于广域网互连,也可以用于局域网互连。 网关是一种充当转换重任的计算机系统或设备。使用在不同的通信协议、数据格式或语言,甚至体系结构完全不同的两种系统之间,网关是一个翻译器。与网桥只是简单地传达信息不同,网关对收到的信息要重新打包,以适应目的系统的需求。 4G工业网关的基本功能是连接两个异构网络,这在工业物联网场景中尤为常见,因为传感器网络经常使用完全不同于普通网络层(长距离传输网络)的电信号和协议。   4G工业网关功能组成   网络层信号接口 它主要承担网络层信号的对接任务。与感知层信号接口相比,网络层信号接口一般简单得多,因为通常整个系统只需要一个标准的长途网络及其协议,因此相应的硬件接口和数据收发软件相对简单。然而,这并不是说它只能支持一种类型。在实际应用中,工业网关的制造商通常被设计为支持多种形式的长途网络,以实现产品的通用性。特定的表单可以是同时配置多个接口的方式,也可以以配置插件卡的形式设计产品,以便用户可以在离开工厂时选择要配置的不同配置。   传感层信号接口 主要负责传感器网络中各设备信号的对接工作。该模块包括用于不同电信号对接的硬件接口,以及相应的数据采集和指令发送软件。为了解决感知层的复杂性,工业网关厂商将根据各自的目标应用领域,装备感知层信号接口的硬件接口和协议组合。   就地数据库 在一些用于复杂数据处理流程或其他就地业务逻辑处理的场景中,处理后的数据还需要存储在网关本地数据库中。由于工业网关一般属于嵌入式计算设备,所以这类数据库也一般采用嵌入式数据库。嵌入式数据库功能简单,具有内存缓冲,提高了访问速度。   就地的业务逻辑 它主要处理与网关相关的传感器网络部分所连接的设备、传感器和执行器相关的本地系统的业务逻辑。不同网关的本地业务逻辑模块的丰富性和复杂性差异很大。如果工业网关中没有这样的功能模块,它通常被称为数据传输网关、协议转换器或通信管理器。有关就地业务逻辑的详细描述,请参见边缘计算。   数据处理 设备端数据处理主要解决数据不匹配问题。也就是说,服务器所需数据的范围、频率、完整性等等。数据处理的目的是对输入接口中的数据进行排序,将其转换为适合输出的数据形式,并将其推送到输出接口。输入端和输出端可以由设备端或服务器端播放,因此数据流是双向的,并且根据数据类型的不同而不同。   其他功能 除了上面的主要模块之外,网关还常常配置它的功能用户界面,要么使用按钮、命令行(通过Telnet或串口),要么使用图形界面(例如内置的WEB服务器,甚至面板)。如果网关具有适当的业务逻辑,它可能还需要工具来加载脚本文件、配置文件,等等,这些都是本地业务逻辑所需要的。 作为一种远程设备,4G工业网关的自我维护也非常重要。一般情况下,需要利用自己与服务器连接的优势,从服务器上自动下载自己的软件更新包并完成更新。还应通过远程登录完成部分设置和配置工作,以降低外派人员的现场维护成本,提高对用户需求的响应速度。

更多文章

Functional composition of 4G industrial gateway The basic function of the 4G industrial gateway is to connect the two heterogeneous networks, which is particularly common in the industrial Internet of things scenario, because the sensor network often USES completely different electrical signals and protocols from the common network layer (long distance transmission network).   4G...

更多文章

网关和路由器之间的区别 网关是充当转换代理的计算机系统或设备。网关是两个系统之间的转换器,它们使用不同的通信协议,数据格式或语言,甚至是完全不同的体系结构。与简单传达信息的网桥不同,网关重新打包它们收到的信息以满足预期系统的需要。那么网关和路由器之间的区别是什么? 网关和路由器之间的区别如下: 路由器的作用是连接不同的网络并传输信息。根据用途,可分为:接入,企业级,骨干级,太比特,多WAN和3G无线等。 网关 网关可以是路由器,交换机或PC。对于同一网段内的通信,不必涉及网关。只有当主机和非本地网段设备通信时,才需要将所有数据包发送到网关设备,然后通过网关设备转发或路由它们。 路由器是一个网络层系统。一般来说,市场上的路由器分为两类,一类是单协议路由器,另一类是多协议路由器。路由器可以转换数据格式,成为与协议不同的网络互连的必要设备。 网关与路由的关系可以表示为:网关是网络连接的基础,路由是网络连接的桥梁。 路由器使用静态或动态路由来确定网络之间的最短路径。静态路由需要管理员手动设置,动态路由USES协议以动态发现网络之间的路径并确定最短路径。通常,静态路由用于小型网络,动态路由用于大型复杂网络。 现在,路由器集成了网关功能,因此路由器也具有网关功能。 网关和路由器之间的区别 从网关和路由器的定义来看,如果只连接两个网络,则只需要一个网关。 假设只有两个网络:网络A和网络B. 为了使网络A和网络B能够通信,只使用网关连接两个网络,因为只有两个网络,并且不需要确定网络之间的最短路径。 如果需要连接多个网络,为了确保网络的可靠性,需要将网络结构设计为完整网络或部分网络。通过这种方式,网络之间的通信需要两个设备,网关和路由器。由于当前路由器集成了网关的功能,因此只能使用一个设备路由器。

更多文章

twitter

The difference between 4G router and 4G DTU

Category : 技术相关

4G industrial wireless router and 4G DTU are also used for wireless network data transmission of industrial equipment. But there are also significant differences between the two, and the differences between the two are mainly from the appearance of the interface, the use of methods and the application environment.

 

1. Appearance interface the appearance interface of 4G router usually has a network port, which provides wireless networking functions for the network port devices and requires the network port devices to actively access the center to complete data transmission. In general, 4G router will provide a variety of network interface modes of WAN port, LAN or freely switched WAN/LAN port, which can be customized to match the interface according to the connection mode in the project.

 

The external interface of 4G DTU generally only provides the networking mode of serial port interface. 4G DTU is mainly used for two-way transmission between serial port data and IP data. And some projects need to use both the network port, but also need to use the serial port how to do? In the current era of rapid technological development, 4G router and 4G DTU function have been integrated.

 

2. Methods 4G router can be used to convert Ethernet and fieldbus communication protocols. Only the IP address specified by 4G router needs to be set in the terminal device as the gateway. If the specified IP address (or the specified IP address segment) is not set, the communication function cannot be implemented. The primary purpose of 4G DTU is to achieve dial-up, not gateway in the real sense. For example, 4G DTU can be used as a new network device after dialing into the terminal device, and the terminal device address can use this 4G DTU binding address.

 

3. 4G router in the application environment usually has VPN/APN function and private network encryption. In addition, industrial 4G router with WIFI function is suitable for outdoor WIFI wireless signal coverage projects and similar public transport WIFI and mall WIFI sharing projects. However, 4G DTU is applied in the field terminal with scattered transmission distance and high data communication rate, so the real-time performance of 4G DTU can meet the requirements of most industrial fields and is usually used for data acquisition and monitoring system. Such as charging pile remote monitoring system, environmental monitoring system, real-time monitoring of energy consumption, dam water conservancy project monitoring application.

 

4. Data access interface of terminal equipment

4 g router provides one network interface of data access, terminal equipment needs only the IP address of the mouth to the 4 g router in the network as a gateway to the IP address of the terminal device must use specified or specify the IP address in the address period, 4 g router to specify the server hostname or IP address of the IP address of the server host for data exchange, and all the other 4 g router is not set between the address of the can’t communicate.

 

5. 4 g DTU data access generally also provides a serial port or network interface, but their use is used to dial, not used to do in the true sense of the gateway, such as serial interface 4 g DTU after completion of the access terminal dial-up, 4 g DTU as terminal equipment of a new network equipment, terminal equipment address using the new network equipment binding address; The 4G DTU of the network interface is similar to the ADSL of telecommunications, which requires the device to complete a dial-up action.

 

6. IP address used by the terminal device

The IP address used by terminal devices using 4G routers is any IP address that can be set by itself or in the IP address segment, which is also different from the IP address assigned by the UIM card.

The IP address used by terminal devices using 4G DTU is generally the IP address assigned by UIM card dialing (which is specified by 3A).

 

7. Transmission security of terminal equipment

Terminal devices using 4G routers must use the specified IP address, and any other address cannot communicate. After the data of the terminal device passes through the 4G router, the content transmitted through the wireless network is encrypted. Generally, the data transmitted in the intercepted wireless network cannot be decrypted, and the encrypted data can only be decrypted correctly by the designated communication server. At the same time, there is a unique corresponding serial number and other key processing for all data. 4G router guarantees that the terminal device data will not be replayed or resent.

Using 4 g DTU terminal device using IP address would not have such restrictions, so just can assign IP addresses can and to communicate with the server system, terminal equipment data after 4 g DTU, use the wireless network to transmit the contents of the general only through IP head processing, intercept wireless network transmission of data simply remove header information can speak transmission data display; At the same time, the data are not processed accordingly. 4G DTU may lead to the replay or retransmission of wireless data, which will lead to abnormal system, thus causing potential security risks.

 

8. Wireless access security

Using 4 g router data exchange is using a wireless router and communication between the server to establish the safety of the tunnel, all of the data exchange can be to end (terminal) to end (server), and any other middle to end data are cannot communicate effectively, that is to say, at the ends of the wireless network provider will not be able to enter any system.

4G DTU data exchange USES the data exchange process within the wireless network provider, which enables the wireless network provider to easily access any system at both ends of the communication.

 

9. Anti-interference of terminal equipment

Core system USES 4 g router is embedded operating system, only can use very little data port, and the relationship between the terminal equipment is only a routing, so terminal equipment cannot reach the other end, even not be able to access other terminal equipment of the same type, even if there is a terminal device is controlled by a virus or by an outsider, is only affect the a terminal device, the other is not affected.

Terminal devices using 4G DTU are related to 4G DTU and can easily access other terminal devices. If one terminal device is controlled by a virus or an outsider, all terminal devices and the central server system will be seriously threatened.

 

10. Equipment status monitoring

4G router can monitor the status at the same time, and basically know where the problem is and the corresponding solutions through log information.

When using 4G DTU, the status monitoring cannot be carried out, so when encountering problems, it will take much trouble or trouble to check.

 

11. server network routing Settings

When using 4G router to access the terminal device, it is necessary to add a 4G router from the server to the terminal device and use the communication server as the gateway, thus reducing the complexity of the network.

When using 4G DTU to access the terminal device in the server, it is to add a route to the terminal device in the server with the access interface of the wireless network provider as the gateway (or related route).

 

12. Anti-interference of server network

When using 4G router, the data transmission must conform to the preset regulations, otherwise, the communication cannot be carried out correctly, reducing the possibility of unnecessary network traffic. At the same time, according to the sent serial number and other key processing, to ensure that the server data will not be replay or resend.

4G DTU does not carry out relevant filtering during data transmission, so other machines can directly send some illegal information to the device terminal through the network. Meanwhile, 4G DTU increases unnecessary network traffic. At the same time, the data is not processed accordingly, which may lead to the replay or retransmission of wireless data, which will lead to the abnormal system, thus causing security risks.

 

13. Data compression and transmission

4G routers can compress large packets before transmitting, thus reducing network traffic, increasing network bandwidth and improving data transmission efficiency (except for images and images with high compression ratio).

4G DTU generally does not compress data during data transmission.

 

14. Processing of exchange data

Communication server is the core of 4G router, so there must be one host installed on the center server side for 4G router to communicate with. All data exchanged between devices must be encrypted, decrypted, verified and routed by it. There are no other intermediate servers in 4G DTU, but directly connect to the center server.

Characteristics and differences between RS485 and RS232

Category : 技术相关

RS232 and RS485 have always been the weak current common interface, but there are a lot of people do not understand the difference between them is not very thorough.

 

I. overview of RS485

 

RS-485 serial bus is widely used when the communication distance is tens of meters to thousands of meters. RS-485 adopts balanced transmission and differential reception, so it has the ability to suppress common mode interference. In addition, the bus transceiver has high sensitivity and can detect voltage as low as 200mV, so the transmission signal can be recovered from kilometers away.

 

The RS-485 operates in a semi-duplex mode, with only one point in the sending state at any time. Therefore, the sending circuit must be controlled by the enabling signal.

 

II. Features of RS485

 

The RS-485 is very convenient for multipoint interconnection and eliminates many signal lines. The RS-485 enables networking to form a distributed system that allows up to 32 parallel drivers and 32 receivers. In view of the shortcomings of RS-232-C, the new standard RS-485 has the following characteristics:

(1) the electrical characteristics of RS – 485: The voltage difference between the two lines ( +6V ~ +2V) represent the logic “1″, the voltage difference between the two lines (-6V ~ -2V) represent logic “0″. The interface signal level is lower than RS-232-C, so it is not easy to damage the interface circuit chip, and the level is compatible with TTL level, making it easy to connect with TTL circuit.

 

(2) The maximum data transmission rate is 10Mbps

 

(3) RS-485 interface adopts the combination of balanced driver and differential receiver, and has strong anti-common mode interference ability, that is, good anti-noise performance.

 

(4) The maximum transmission distance standard value of RS-485 interface is 4000 feet(about 1219meters), which can reach 3000 meters in fact.

 

(5) RS-232-C interface is only allowed to connect to one transceiver on the bus, that is, single station capability; The RS-485 interface is only allowed to connect up to 128 transceivers on the bus, that is, it has multi-station capability, so that users can use a single RS-485 interface to easily establish the device network.

 

III. Overview of RS232

 

The RS-232 interface conforms to the interface standard for serial data communication formulated by EIA. The original number is EIA- RS-232 (short for 232, RS232). It is widely used in computer serial interface peripheral connection. Connect cables and mechanical, electrical characteristics, signal functions and transmission processes.

 

The RS-232-C standard specifies data transfer rates of 50, 75, 100, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 baud per second.

 

IV. Features of RS232

 

RS-232 is one of the main serial communication interfaces. Due to the early appearance of RS232 interface standard, it is inevitable that there are some deficiencies, mainly including the following four points:

 

(1) The interface signal level value is high, easy to damage the interface circuit chip. RS232 interface any signal line voltage is negative logic. That is, logic “1″ is -3 — -15v; Logic “0″ : +3 — +15V, noise tolerance is 2V. That is, the receiver is required to recognize the signal higher than +3V as the logical “0″, and the signal lower than -3v as the logical “1″. TTL level of 5V is the logical positive and 0 is the logical negative. It is not compatible with TTL level, so it needs to use level conversion circuit to connect with TTL circuit.

 

(2) The transmission rate is low, and the bit rate is 20Kbps in asynchronous transmission; Therefore, in 51CPLD development board, the comprehensive program baud rate can only be used 19200, which is also the reason.

 

(3) The interface USES a signal line and a signal return line to form a common ground transmission form, which is easy to generate common mode interference, so the anti-noise interference is weak.

 

(4) The transmission distance is limited. The standard value of the maximum transmission distance is 50 feet, which can only be used for about 15 meters in fact.

 

V. Application field

 

RS-232 is now commonly used in short distance transmission data rate is low, can work effectively in a noisy environment, such as factories, public site, etc., the commonly used equipment has a low-speed modem, industrial control equipment, programmable logic controller (PLC), computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools, robots, embedded control computer, medical instrument and equipment, and embedded controller development system.

 

RS-485 is commonly used in long-distance transmission with high data transmission rate. The commonly used equipment includes point-of-sale terminals (POS), measuring instruments and large specialized automatic machines.

 

But in a normal application, we often need to convert between two different interface types. At this point, we can use the popular USB interface, which can help us to switch to RS-232 interface and RS-485 interface.

 

In conclusion, RS-232 is suitable for short distance and low-speed transmission, while RS-485 is suitable for long distance transmission. RS-485 is a new interface standard aiming at the shortcomings of RS-232 interface. Because of its good anti-noise interference ability and multi-station ability, it has become the preferred standard.

What is M2M?

Category : 技术相关

As is known to all, besides providing more broadband speed and quality, 5G is characterized by the application of the Internet of things (IoT) from the demand and design stage. In order to adapt to different applications, mobile communication technology with no wiring, high coverage and high reusability has become an important carrier.

 

However, there are still considerable difficulties to be solved in the communication between objects, such as how to reduce the impact of a large amount of M2M communication on existing communication networks, and how to avoid increasing the complexity of network operation and maintenance. Therefore, the development of M2M will play an extremely important role in 5G in the future. So what is M2M?

 

I. brief introduction of M2M technology

 

M2M(MachinetoMachine), is the effective control of devices through mobile communication, so as to greatly expand the boundaries of business or create a more efficient way of doing business than the traditional way or create a completely new service completely different from the traditional way. In short, M2M refers to the information exchange and transmission between machines, which achieves the concept of information sharing through the transmission and link of network and communication between machines and devices.

 

In fact, as early as 2002, the concept of M2M business has been proposed, but due to the immature communication technology, the development is still in the enlightenment stage, such as tap water, power company’s automatic meter reading and digital home application. With the rapid development of wireless communication technology, the application of M2M services into the stage of rapid development, in agriculture, industry, public security, urban management, health care, public transportation, and environmental monitoring, can see M2M applications, such as: Integration of smart energy saving, smart car, smart medical care, smart city, smart logistics and other services and applications, very dependent on M2M technology development.

 

II. Application category of M2M

 

Due to the rapid take-off of the Internet of things industry, it is more necessary to integrate the unified and standardized M2M technology. At present, a considerable number of international standards organizations have invested in the research of M2M standardization, including ITU-T, ETSI, IETF, IEEE, 3GPP, OMA, Zigbee and other alliances. According to the research direction and focus of each standard organization, M2M international standard organization can be divided into the overall architecture category, perception extension category, network extension category and business application category. The specific contents of each category are as follows:

 

Overall architecture class

 

M2M business system architecture

Conduct standardized research on M2M requirements, point-to-point architecture, identity analysis, network management and security, etc. Typical standard organizations include ITU-TSG13, ETSITC SmartM2M, OneM2M, CCSATC10, etc.

 

Perceptual extension class

 

Perception layer of M2M module market

Some low transmission rate and short distance wireless communication technologies are standardized, including short distance wireless communication technology, sensor network and telecommunication network fusion, and lightweight IPv6 technology. Typical standard organizations include IEEE802.15, IETF6LoWPAN, CCSATC10, Zigbee alliance, etc.

 

Network communication

 

M2M network communication

The transformation and optimization of M2M hosted network are carried out. Related technologies include the increase of wireless connection network, core network enhancement, environmental awareness, heterogeneous network fusion, etc. Typical standard organizations include itu-t, 3GPP, CCSATC5, IETF, ETSI, etc.

 

Business application class

 

Standardized for enterprise application, public application, cross-enterprise application and application intermediary software platform, the key application fields include smart transportation, smart home, smart power grid, health care, etc. Typical standard organizations include IETF, CCSATS10, ETSI, OGC, etc.

 

III. Industrial application of M2M

 

In the field of application, M2M module technology often combines the sensor to collect information, and through the sensor’s exploration of the unknown environment, the obtained information is transmitted to the device or device, and the available information has been analyzed. In the industry, real-time feedback information can be collected to ensure the quality of products and avoid the failure of equipment parts. According to the desired purpose, the information needed will be probed to improve the accuracy and safety of people’s lives.

 

For example, M2M combined with sensors, applied in industrial process monitoring, can help the machine reduce downtime and timely diagnose potential problems, and provide timely notification and warning in case of failure before affecting the operation of the machine. Improve machine efficiency by monitoring machine performance and making appropriate adjustments. It is also about reducing maintenance costs and increasing the number of devices produced, because you know and react immediately, and you can access information, communicate and calculate at any time.

 

In the factory production process and automation process maintenance, is an indispensable role. Because most of the machines in the factory will inevitably encounter the possibility of defects and loose falls, the process monitoring and adjustment to avoid the machine, because of the loose falls and reduce productivity. Knowledge of information can be gathered through instant messaging in return, and data can be retroactive through access and file creation to facilitate the life cycle of machines and products.

 

IV. Differences between M2M and the Internet of things

 

M2M is a point, or a line. Only when M2M is scaled and popularized, and intelligent integration and communication are realized between each other through the network, can the “Internet of things” be formed. Therefore, the scattered and isolated M2M is not the Internet of things, but the ultimate goal of M2M is the Internet of things. Communication show this year, there are a lot of M2M applications and display, such as China mobile phone wallet and mobile phone power purchase business, China telecom’s “silent e” business, and China unicom “wireless environmental testing platform” business, belong to M2M applications, you can say it is to belong to the category of the concept of Internet of things, but is not the Internet of things. Therefore, to realize the real Internet of things, it needs massive addresses, massive bandwidth and massive storage, as well as extremely high communication intelligence and management intelligence, as well as very perfect regulatory regulations to ensure the feasibility of business.

 

Looking at the current development of M2M, with the development of science and technology, it can be expected that more and more devices have the ability to communicate and network, realize the application of environmental monitoring, environmental analysis and so on, and create Internet of things business opportunities. M2M and the Internet of things will be the focus and direction of future industry development, it will completely change the work and lifestyle of the whole society, the Internet of things is not a dream!

The similarities and differences between industrial 4G router and industrial switch

Category : 技术相关

1. definition of industrial 4G router and industrial switch

 

Industrial 4G router:

 

Industrial 4G router is a network device responsible for path finding. It provides users with communication by finding the least communication from multiple paths in the interconnection network. Industrial 4G router has two typical functions: data channel function and control function. The functions of data channel include forwarding decision, backplane forwarding and output link scheduling, etc. The control function is usually implemented by software, including information exchange, system configuration and system management between the router and the neighboring industry 4G router. Industrial 4G routers are used to connect multiple logically separate networks. The industrial 4G router USES the routing table to select the path for data transmission. The routing table contains the list of network addresses and the distance between each address. The industrial 4G router USES the routing table to find the correct path of the packet from the current location to the destination address. The industrial 4G router USES the least time algorithm or the optimal path algorithm to adjust the path of information transmission. If one network path fails or becomes blocked, the industrial 4G router can choose another path to ensure the normal transmission of information. Industrial 4G routers can convert data formats and become necessary devices for network interconnection between different protocols.

 

Industrial 4G routers use path searching protocol to obtain network information, and use path searching algorithm and criterion based on “path searching matrix” to select the optimal path. According to the OSI reference model, an industrial 4G router is a network layer system. Industrial 4G routers are divided into single-protocol industrial 4G router and multi-protocol industrial 4G router.

 

The Internet is made up of a variety of networks, of which industrial 4G routers are a very important part. Intranet to be incorporated into the Internet and serve as Internet service, industrial 4G router is an indispensable component, and the configuration of industrial 4G router is also relatively complex.

 

Industrial Switch:

 

Industrial switch is a device that expands the network and provides more connection ports for the sub-network to connect more computers. With the development of the communications industry and the advancement of the informatization of the national economy, the network exchange market has been rising steadily. It features high cost ratio, high flexibility, relatively simple and easy to implement. Therefore, Ethernet technology has become the most important LAN networking technology, network switch has become the most popular switch. The switch can be recognized based on MAC address, and can complete the function of packaging and forwarding packet network equipment. An industrial switch can “learn” the MAC address and store it in the internal address table, enabling the data frame to go directly from the source address to the destination address by establishing a temporary switching path between the originator of the data frame and the target receiver. If the network utilization is over 40% and the collision rate is over 10%, the industrial switch can help you solve a few problems. Industrial switches with 100Mbps fast Ethernet and 10Mbps Ethernet ports can run in full duplex mode and can establish dedicated 20Mbps to 200Mbps connections.

 

2. Similarities and differences between industrial 4G routers and industrial switches

 

Similarity

 

(1) “exchange” is a word with a wide range of meanings. When it is used to describe the devices in the second layer of data network, it actually refers to a bridging device; When it is used to describe the third layer of the data network, it refers to a routing device. That is, both industrial switches and industrial 4G routers can be used to exchange network devices, but at different levels.

 

(2) Internet access. It’s all about extending the network.

 

Differences

 

(1) The first industrial switch worked at the OSI/RM open architecture’s data link layer (layer 2), while the industrial 4G router was initially designed to work at the OSI model’s network layer. Since the industrial switch works at the OSI layer 2 (data link layer), it works simpler, while the industrial 4G router works at the OSI layer 3 (network layer), which yields more protocol information, and the industrial 4G router makes smarter forwarding decisions.

 

(2) different industrial switches based on different objects for data forwarding use physical address or MAC address to determine the destination address for data forwarding. Industrial 4G routers, on the other hand, use the ID Numbers (i.e. IP addresses) of different networks to determine the addresses for data forwarding. IP addresses are implemented in software that describe the network on which the device is located, and sometimes these third-tier addresses are also known as protocol addresses or network addresses. MAC addresses are typically hardware-owned, assigned by network card manufacturers, and have been solidified into network CARDS, which are generally immutable. IP addresses are usually assigned automatically by the network administrator or the system.

 

(3) traditional industrial switches can only divide the conflict domain and cannot divide the broadcast domain. Industrial 4G routers can segment broadcast domains. A network segment connected by an industrial switch still belongs to the same broadcast domain, and broadcast packets are spread across all network segments connected by an industrial switch, in some cases leading to communications advocacy and security vulnerabilities. Network segments connected to industrial 4G routers are assigned different broadcast domains, and broadcast data does not pass through industrial 4G routers.

 

Although the industrial switch above the third layer has VLAN function and can divide the broadcast domain, the communication between sub-broadcast domains is not possible, and the communication between them still needs the industrial 4G router.

 

(4) industrial 4G routers provide firewall services, which only forward packets of specific addresses, do not transmit packets that do not support routing protocol, and the transmission of target network packets for knowledge, thus preventing broadcast storms.