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伊林思_工业无线路由器OSPF链路类型(Link... 工业无线路由器OSPF链路类型(Link Type) 巧玲珑OSPF确实因为考虑问题的全面,而导致路由协议的复杂,OSPF不仅因为不同的二层链路层介质定义了不同的OSPF网络类型(Network Type),还因为链路上的邻居,而定义了OSPF链路类型(Link Type) 。 OSPF网络类型(Network...

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工业路由器的Network Summary LSA 工业路由器:Network Summary LSA ABR工业级路由器始发,用于通告该区域外部的目的地址, 可以使用show ip ospf database summary查看LSA 如果ABR知道有多条路径可以到达目标地址,但是它仍然只发送单个的Network Summary LSA,并且是开销最低的那条;同样,如果ABR从其他的ABR那里收到多条Network...

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工业4G路由器BGP邻居的flaping •工业路由器通过IGP学到对方loopback,并用looback建EBGP邻居 •又在BGP中通告此loopback。此时BGP邻居会出现flaping R1和R2之间运行一个IGP协议,比如说EIGRP。将环回口都宣告进去,这样R1和R2相互之间就有对方环回口的工业级路由器路由了,然后再用环回口建立EBGP邻居关系。最后再把2.2.2.0和1.1.1.0的环回口宣告进BGP。这时你会发现工业无线路由器BGP路由会发生flapping。 原因一:无线路由器 •首先R1和R2之间运行了EIGRP,学到对方的环回口工业级无线路由器路由是一条EIGRP路由,管理距离是90 •而当这两个环回口宣告进BGP后,R1和R2又通过BGP学到对方环回口路由,管理距离是20 •这时,全网工业级路由器BGP路由由于管理距离最小,会进入全网工业路由器路由表,取代EIGRP路由 •问题在于,现在的全网通工业路由器BGP路由是有问题的,下一跳是不可达的 R2收到的1.1.1.0的BGP路由下一跳是R1的环回口1.1.1.1 R1收到的2.2.2.0的BGP路由下一跳是R2的环回口2.2.2.2 •BGP有一个检查机制,每60S检查一次BGP路由,看是否有效,60S后就会检查到这些工业级全网通路由器路由并设为无效 •BGP路由无效以后,在路由表中就没有了,EIGRP路由又起作用了。 •有了EIGRP路由,BGP路由的下一跳有可达了。又有效了。 •BGP邻居有效以后,又会抢占了EIGRP路由的地位,又会导致全网通工业级路由器BGP路由下一跳不可达。 原因二:4g路由器 •首先R1和R2之间运行了EIGRP,学到对方的环回口工业全网通路由器路由是一条EIGRP路由,管理距离是90 •而当这两个环回口宣告进BGP后,R1和R2又通过BGP学到对方环回口路由,管理距离是20 •这时,工业级全网路由器BGP路由由于管理距离最小,会进入路由表,取代EIGRP路由 •问题在于,现在的工业4G路由器BGP路由是有问题的,下一跳是不可达的 R2收到的1.1.1.0的工业级4G路由器BGP路由下一跳是R1的环回口1.1.1.1 R1收到的2.2.2.0的BGP路由下一跳是R2的环回口2.2.2.2 •路由不可达就造成两个邻居之间没法发送keeplive •180S后BGP邻居关系超时,并DOWN掉。这时EIGRP路由又起作用了。 •有了EIGRP路由,BGP邻居关系又可以建立了。 •BGP邻居有效以后,工业全网路由器BGP路由又会抢占了EIGRP路由的地位,又会导致BGP邻居再一次DOWN掉。 标签:全网通路由器 ...

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工业路由器OSPF建立邻居到LSA的互换的交换过程 从工业路由器OSPF建立邻居,到LSA的互换,到路由表的计算,需要经过一系列的工业级路由器数据包交换过程,过程如下: Hello ↓ Database Description Packets (DBD) ↓ Link-state Request (LSR) ↓ Link-state update(LSU) ↓ LSDB 具体情况如下: Hello Hello包是用来建立和维护工业无线路由器OSPF邻居的,要交换LSA,必须先通过Hello包建立工业级无线路由器OSPF邻居。 Database...

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伊林思:工业4g路由器区域分离你清楚吗? 工业4g路由器区域分离 区域分离的操作与区域合并的正好相反。区域分离可以将原有的一个区域分离为两个不同的区域。如下图所示,R1与R2都为L1/2工业路由器。起初R1和R2属于同一个区域中,都拥有相同的区域地址49.0001,之间形成了L1和L2邻接关系,共享相同的L1和L2链路状态数据库。现在需要将这两个区域分离开。与区域合并一样,可以先赋予R2两个全网通工业路由器NET地址,区域地址分别为49.0001和49.0002。之后再将R2原先区域地址为49.0001的NET地址删除,这时由于R1和R2处于不同的区域,L1邻接关系将不存在,但L2邻接关系和L2链路状态数据将保留,此时便完成了全网通工业级路由器区域分离。 重编址 重编址过程与区域合并、区域分离相似,重编址可能需要清除一些或者全部工业级路由器的区域前缀,用新的区域前缀代替。如下图所示,现在希望将原先的49.0001区域迁移到49.0002区域,这就需要更改工业级无线路由器上的区域地址。R1和R2属于同一个区域49.0001中,要将R1和R2迁移到49.0002区域中,可以为R1和R2都赋予两个NET地址,两个NET地址包含不同的区域地址,49.0001和49.0002,然后依次删除R1和R2的包含49.0001区域地址的NET地址,这样就实现了工业无线路由器新的NSAP地址的无缝、无冲突的重新配置。 注意,IS-IS多宿主与IP中的辅助地址(secondanaryIP)是不同的,辅助地址可以在同一条工业级全网通路由器链路上创建多个隔离的逻辑子网。另外,辅助IP地址是在一条链路上配置多个子网。 工业无线路由器NSEL NSEL定义了网络层服务的用户,工业全网通路由器路由层是特殊的网络层服务用户,它的NSEL值为0。之前多次提到,在IS-IS工业4G路由器上配置的NSAP地址采用00作为NSEL,这时NSAP地址被称为NET。NSEL的值与IP报头中的协议类型或TCP/UDP报头中的TCP、UDP端口号类似,NSEL帮助网络层把数据发送到适当的应用程序或服务。在OSI分层模型中,网络层服务的是传输层。目标不是路由进程的CLNP数据包具有非0的NSEL值的NSAP地址,表示节点需要将数据发送到传输层。我们在使用IS-IS进行工业级4G路由器IP路由选择中,只要记住始终保持NSEL为00即可。全网通4g路由器

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了解工业级路由器Classless与Classful路由协议

Category : 产品文章

大家都非常清楚,可以将一个IP网段划分成多个子网,子网的掩码可以是任意位数,比如将一个10.0.0.0/8的大网划分出10.1.1.0/24,10.1.2.0/24,10.1.3.0/24等等,划分出来的更小的网络叫做子网,而原来的大网络叫主网,也称为主类网络,A类地址掩码必须为8位才是主类网络,B类地址掩码必须为16位才是主类网络,C类地址掩码必须为24位才是主类网络。

无论是主网还是子网,都会被工业路由器放入路由表,只是某些工业LTE路由器路由协议不能精确传递子网而已,但只要路由协议传递了子网和掩码,工业级路由器就一定会将其放入路由表中。

支持子网的功能被称为Classless,支持Classless可以与子网很好的协作,如果不支持子网,则被称为Classful,所以,一个路由协议是工作在Classless还是Classful,直接关系到全网路由器路由信息中是否存在精确的子网信息,如RIP和EIGRP,并且这些功能可以在协议中手工开启或关闭。4g DTU

路由协议有Classless与Classful的说法,而IOS本身也有运行在Classless还是Classful的说法,IOS是工作在Classless还是Classful,并不影响路由表中是否有子网条目,也就是说,IOS工作在Classless还是Classful,并不影响工业3G路由器路由表的建立,工业级LTE路由器路由表不会有任何区别,但是,Classless与Classful会决定工业无线路由器转发数据包的进程,影响如下:

对于某个主类网络,如10.0.0.0/8,当工业全网通路由器路由表中存在其中部分子网,如10.1.1.0/24和10.1.2.0/24,当工作在Classless时,对于已经知道的子网,工业级无线路由器会将数据包精确地发送到相应出口,而对于并不知道的子网和其它所有未知目标网络,如10.1.3.0/24和30.1.1.0/24,如果存在默认路由的话,工业级4G路由器便将他们全部发送到默认路由所指示的出口;但是当全网通路由器工作在Classful时,工业级全网通路由器知道了子网10.1.1.0/24,就始终会认为其它所有10.0.0.0/8范围内的子网都应该真实存在于网络中,会认为10.1.2.0/24、10.1.3.0/24等等都存在于网络中,只是自己没有详细路由,这时,当路由器收到去往10.1.1.0/24的数据包时,可以正常转发,但是如果收到去往10.1.3.0/24和30.1.1.0/24的数据包,当路由表中存在默认路由时,去往30.1.1.0/24的数据包会被发送到默认工业级3G路由器路由指示的出口,而去往10.0.0.0/8中的未知子网10.1.3.0/24的数据包则被全部丢弃而不走默认路由。

由以上情况可以看出,工业4G路由器工作在Classful时,如果知道了某个主类网络中的部分子网后,其它所有未知子网的数据包将被全部丢弃而不转发,即使存在默认路由,也不会转发,而其它主类网络的数据包还是会正常转发。IOS的Classless与Classful可以通过命令ip classless和no ip classless开启或关闭。

标签:4g路由器   无线路由器

Wireless M2M Solution for Environmental

Category : 其他

Wireless M2M Solution for Environmental

Environmental information of large quantity, various kinds and quick update is in urgent demand. Thus, how to establish environmental data acquisition systems of practical use, wide coverage, real-time, and flexibility?  Data transmission with GPRS wireless network comes. Pollution monitoring equipment could send collected pollution data and alarm information to environmental monitoring department with GPRS network timely, achieving efficient and effective management over sewage units.

Wireless M2M Solution for Energy Sources

Category : 其他

Wireless M2M Solution for Energy Sources

 

With tech development, E-Lins smart series modules and computer-systems appear to serve oil field, able to remote monitor and collect oil equipment data. Oil well pump is the key part in oil field. Large quantity and wide spread of oil wells increases labor intensity, moreover impacting real-time data extraction and accuracy of equipment monitoring. Oil field monitoring and operating system, based upon computer and GPRS wireless data radio, solves the problem, greatly improving oil production efficiency, reducing overall cost, and realizing oil production and management automation.

Wireless Router for Mobile Network

Category : 其他

Mobile wireless router is for mobile cellular network, providing wifi and rj45 connection, for Soho and Industrial class use.
From technology, Wireless router is mainly classified in wireless wifi router, wireless wimax router, and wireless cell router.
From used filed, wireless router is classified soho (also called in non-industrial) class, and industrial class for Industrial Ethernet Router.
SOHOis for large data use, for example 3Grouter (including EVDO Router, HSDPA Router, and HSUPA Router, and HSPA Router.)
A wireless router is a device that performs the functions of a router but also includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch. They are commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network), a wireless only LAN (WLAN), or a mixed wired/wireless network. Most current wireless routers have the following characteristics:
1. LAN RJ45 ports, normally 1 or 2 or 4 ports, which function in the same manner as the ports of a network switch
2.      A WAN port, normally 1 RJ45 port to connect to a wide area network, typically one with Internet access. External destinations are accessed using this port. If it is not used, many functions of the router will be bypassed.
3.      Wireless antennae. These allow connections from other wireless devices (NICs (network interface cards), wireless repeaters, wireless access points, and wireless bridges, for example), usually using the Wi-Fi standard.
4.      Some wireless routers also include a DSL or cable modem in addition to their other components.
As for the wireless antenna, contains GSM/3Gcellular antenna and WiFi/Wimax antenna, with different connecting type, such as SMA. Normally antenna is default packed by manufacturer. High gain antenna is available for replacement to receive better and stronger signal so as to get good receiving and transmission of data.

Wireless M2M Make Machine Talk

Category : 其他

What’s wireless M2M?

M2M=Machine to Machine, which means let the machines communicates together. Wireless M2M use wireless network for the communications, such as cellular wireless network, RFID, WiFi, Wimax and other networks.

Wireless-M2M, provides communications between people, devices and systems that turns data into information, that can communicate with companies management systems so they can act upon it. Machine-to-machine solutions are giving corporate adopters an efficient and cost-efficient method to make necessary connections happen. Companies adopting M2M are using these solutions to solve their challenges, whether it is by industry or application. Machine-to-machine business is about creating solutions aimed at improving existing business, creating new opportunities, and essentially making daily life easier. What makes M2M solutions so essential is that the technology is driven more by devices interacting with people and other devices and systems. The goal is to increase performance and competitiveness of companies, cost-saving and better service levels.

Wireless-M2M solutions range from embedded modules and boards, to external boxed solution products can make virtually any existing, or legacy devices to be easily networked, either wired or wireless. Our wireless connectivity products utilise Bluetooth, GSM, GPRS and Wi-Fi technologies to simplify cabling, increase user mobility, and enable remote device management. Wireless-M2M has helped customers in a range of vertical markets wirelessly enable their products all over the world. Applications range from Remote Data Monitoring, asset tracking, Retail Business messaging, Remote Alarm Monitoring, EPOS, Industrial, Energy Management and many others.

Wireless M2M communications Wireless-M2M range of GSM, GPRS, Bluetooth, Wireless and GPS, intelligent products provide the most robust, high-performance, and fastest route for wireless connectivity into products for data and multimedia applications for easy integration.

However, cellular network is the most used and mainly used for wireless m2m. The GSM network, 3G network, even new 4G network are the good choice for M2M if the cable network is unconvenient to get.

Cellular Producuts for Wireless M2M

Category : 其他

Equipment is normally at remote site from anywhere in the world, which need monitor or remote management. With wireless cellular device for connection, no more expensive site visiting.

The Global System for Mobile Communications Service is the most widely use. GSM also provides a number of carefully standardized and broadly supported capabilities such as Short Message Service (SMS), circuit switched data (CSD) and General Packet Radio Services (GPRS). Used on all bands throughout the world. 900 and 1800MHz, higher bands for data and imaging. Choose from our vast range of products from a simple GSM modems to a high performance GPRS2G router or a3G HSPA router.

GSM Modems have Plug & Play solution for quick and easy integration. The wide performance range and robust case of the our modems and routers enables you to quickly develop new telemetry and telematic applications. Our GSM Modems and routers come complete with all accessories to enable you to start an application. Some even come complete with additional features, such as fixed IP SIM card, application toolkit and extended AT Commands for the industrial environment.

Mainly wireless M2M device covers:
Cellular Router;
Cellular Modem;
Cellular IP modem;
Others.
During them, router and modem is the most used.

A. Routers
1. gprs router
2. edge router
3. cdma1x router
4. HSDPA router
5. HSUPA router
6. HSPA/HSPA+ router
7. EVDO router
8. 4G LTE router

B. Modem
1. gprs modem
2. edge modem
3. cdma1x modem
4. HSDPA modem
5. HSUPA modem
6. HSPA/HSPA+ modem
7. EVDO modem
8. 4G LTE modem

Port types: RJ45 ethernet, USB, RS232, RS485, TTL.

2G router and 2g modem is for small data. 3g router and 3g modem are for big data transmission requirements.
3g wifi router is a router with wifi connection, which is convenient for management locally.

Wireless M2M Solution for Security

Category : 其他

Security access control system has become an extremely important part of security system.

The fundamental reason is that it takes the initiative to replace the passive monitor, such as CCTV, burglar alarms, to control main channels to prevent criminals from entering through normal channels, and that it is able to control access doors to deter crime or reduce losses. In recent years, GPRS access control system has been popular, applied to postal system, power supply system, banking system, residential area, hotels, etc.. It greatly improves security management efficiency.

Wireless M2M Solution for Traffic

Category : 其他

Wireless M2M Solution for Traffic

Smart Traffic is a new type of transportation of information, intelligence and socialization, making use of advanced tech, including information, communication, and control. Car satellite positioning system is quite a good example. GPRS/CDMA network could also be applied to position buses, taxies, trucks, to master the overall situation for monitor and dispatch

Wireless M2M Solution for Financial System

Category : 其他

Wireless M2M Solution for Financial System

POS (Point of Sales) real-time service system is the important base of realizing commercial automation.China’s banks have set up their own systems of cable access to POS systems, but the cable POS machines are always restricted by space and telecommunication lines, which make it hard to achieve the goal that card consumption can be quick and checked at anytime and anyplace. The access way of GPRS wireless POS machines can solve the problem that POS machines can only be used on some fixed occasions, which makes POS machines not restricted by the telecommunication, and now it has been widely accepted by customers, such as, hotels, gas companies, bus companies, highway authorities, banks, distribution centers, passenger ticketing centers, taxation departments, delivery companies, and mobile sales offices, etc.

Wireless M2M Solution for Water Conservancy

Category : 其他

Wireless M2M Solution for Water Conservancy

Hydrological station is a site to collect basic water information, the basis for hydrological work. With basin’s rapid economic growth and population growth, conflict between water supply and demand is more and more prominent.  Real-time hydrological data, collected by hydrological station, is in great demand. The use of digital video surveillance system, to collect data, image, sound, video, improves accuracy. Hydrological stations spread widely and remotely. Thus, it’s impossible to use of wired or fiber communication to delivery data. In contrast, wireless communication wiring is simple, convenient, and the cost is relatively low, saving a lot of investment. E-Lins Router series is a smart choice for hydrological application