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伊林思_工业无线路由器OSPF链路类型(Link... 工业无线路由器OSPF链路类型(Link Type) 巧玲珑OSPF确实因为考虑问题的全面,而导致路由协议的复杂,OSPF不仅因为不同的二层链路层介质定义了不同的OSPF网络类型(Network Type),还因为链路上的邻居,而定义了OSPF链路类型(Link Type) 。 OSPF网络类型(Network...

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工业路由器的Network Summary LSA 工业路由器:Network Summary LSA ABR工业级路由器始发,用于通告该区域外部的目的地址, 可以使用show ip ospf database summary查看LSA 如果ABR知道有多条路径可以到达目标地址,但是它仍然只发送单个的Network Summary LSA,并且是开销最低的那条;同样,如果ABR从其他的ABR那里收到多条Network...

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工业4G路由器BGP邻居的flaping •工业路由器通过IGP学到对方loopback,并用looback建EBGP邻居 •又在BGP中通告此loopback。此时BGP邻居会出现flaping R1和R2之间运行一个IGP协议,比如说EIGRP。将环回口都宣告进去,这样R1和R2相互之间就有对方环回口的工业级路由器路由了,然后再用环回口建立EBGP邻居关系。最后再把2.2.2.0和1.1.1.0的环回口宣告进BGP。这时你会发现工业无线路由器BGP路由会发生flapping。 原因一:无线路由器 •首先R1和R2之间运行了EIGRP,学到对方的环回口工业级无线路由器路由是一条EIGRP路由,管理距离是90 •而当这两个环回口宣告进BGP后,R1和R2又通过BGP学到对方环回口路由,管理距离是20 •这时,全网工业级路由器BGP路由由于管理距离最小,会进入全网工业路由器路由表,取代EIGRP路由 •问题在于,现在的全网通工业路由器BGP路由是有问题的,下一跳是不可达的 R2收到的1.1.1.0的BGP路由下一跳是R1的环回口1.1.1.1 R1收到的2.2.2.0的BGP路由下一跳是R2的环回口2.2.2.2 •BGP有一个检查机制,每60S检查一次BGP路由,看是否有效,60S后就会检查到这些工业级全网通路由器路由并设为无效 •BGP路由无效以后,在路由表中就没有了,EIGRP路由又起作用了。 •有了EIGRP路由,BGP路由的下一跳有可达了。又有效了。 •BGP邻居有效以后,又会抢占了EIGRP路由的地位,又会导致全网通工业级路由器BGP路由下一跳不可达。 原因二:4g路由器 •首先R1和R2之间运行了EIGRP,学到对方的环回口工业全网通路由器路由是一条EIGRP路由,管理距离是90 •而当这两个环回口宣告进BGP后,R1和R2又通过BGP学到对方环回口路由,管理距离是20 •这时,工业级全网路由器BGP路由由于管理距离最小,会进入路由表,取代EIGRP路由 •问题在于,现在的工业4G路由器BGP路由是有问题的,下一跳是不可达的 R2收到的1.1.1.0的工业级4G路由器BGP路由下一跳是R1的环回口1.1.1.1 R1收到的2.2.2.0的BGP路由下一跳是R2的环回口2.2.2.2 •路由不可达就造成两个邻居之间没法发送keeplive •180S后BGP邻居关系超时,并DOWN掉。这时EIGRP路由又起作用了。 •有了EIGRP路由,BGP邻居关系又可以建立了。 •BGP邻居有效以后,工业全网路由器BGP路由又会抢占了EIGRP路由的地位,又会导致BGP邻居再一次DOWN掉。 标签:全网通路由器 ...

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工业路由器OSPF建立邻居到LSA的互换的交换过程 从工业路由器OSPF建立邻居,到LSA的互换,到路由表的计算,需要经过一系列的工业级路由器数据包交换过程,过程如下: Hello ↓ Database Description Packets (DBD) ↓ Link-state Request (LSR) ↓ Link-state update(LSU) ↓ LSDB 具体情况如下: Hello Hello包是用来建立和维护工业无线路由器OSPF邻居的,要交换LSA,必须先通过Hello包建立工业级无线路由器OSPF邻居。 Database...

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伊林思:工业4g路由器区域分离你清楚吗? 工业4g路由器区域分离 区域分离的操作与区域合并的正好相反。区域分离可以将原有的一个区域分离为两个不同的区域。如下图所示,R1与R2都为L1/2工业路由器。起初R1和R2属于同一个区域中,都拥有相同的区域地址49.0001,之间形成了L1和L2邻接关系,共享相同的L1和L2链路状态数据库。现在需要将这两个区域分离开。与区域合并一样,可以先赋予R2两个全网通工业路由器NET地址,区域地址分别为49.0001和49.0002。之后再将R2原先区域地址为49.0001的NET地址删除,这时由于R1和R2处于不同的区域,L1邻接关系将不存在,但L2邻接关系和L2链路状态数据将保留,此时便完成了全网通工业级路由器区域分离。 重编址 重编址过程与区域合并、区域分离相似,重编址可能需要清除一些或者全部工业级路由器的区域前缀,用新的区域前缀代替。如下图所示,现在希望将原先的49.0001区域迁移到49.0002区域,这就需要更改工业级无线路由器上的区域地址。R1和R2属于同一个区域49.0001中,要将R1和R2迁移到49.0002区域中,可以为R1和R2都赋予两个NET地址,两个NET地址包含不同的区域地址,49.0001和49.0002,然后依次删除R1和R2的包含49.0001区域地址的NET地址,这样就实现了工业无线路由器新的NSAP地址的无缝、无冲突的重新配置。 注意,IS-IS多宿主与IP中的辅助地址(secondanaryIP)是不同的,辅助地址可以在同一条工业级全网通路由器链路上创建多个隔离的逻辑子网。另外,辅助IP地址是在一条链路上配置多个子网。 工业无线路由器NSEL NSEL定义了网络层服务的用户,工业全网通路由器路由层是特殊的网络层服务用户,它的NSEL值为0。之前多次提到,在IS-IS工业4G路由器上配置的NSAP地址采用00作为NSEL,这时NSAP地址被称为NET。NSEL的值与IP报头中的协议类型或TCP/UDP报头中的TCP、UDP端口号类似,NSEL帮助网络层把数据发送到适当的应用程序或服务。在OSI分层模型中,网络层服务的是传输层。目标不是路由进程的CLNP数据包具有非0的NSEL值的NSAP地址,表示节点需要将数据发送到传输层。我们在使用IS-IS进行工业级4G路由器IP路由选择中,只要记住始终保持NSEL为00即可。全网通4g路由器

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PPPoE–Point-to-point protocol over Ethernet

Category : 其他, 技术相关

The Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol for encapsulating PPP frames inside Ethernet frames. It appeared in 1999, in the context of the boom of DSL as the solution for tunneling packet sover the DSL connection to the ISP’s IP network, and from there to the rest of the Internet. A 2005 networking book noted that “Most DSL providers use PPPoE, which provides authentication, encryption, and compression.” Typical use of PPPoE involves leveraging the PPP facilities for authenticating the user with a username and password, predominately via the PAP protocol and less often via CHAP.

On the customer-premises equipment, PPPoE may be implemented either in a unified residential gateway device that handles both DSL modem and IP routing functions or in the case of a simple DSL modem (without routing support), PPPoE may be handled behind it on a separate Ethernet-only router or even directly on a user’s computer. (Support for PPPoE is present in most operating systems, ranging from Windows XP, Linux to Mac OS X.) More recently, some GPON-based (instead of DSL-based) residential gateways also use PPPoE, although the status of PPPoE in the GPON standards is marginal.

PPPoE was developed by UUNET, Redback Networks (now Ericsson) and RouterWare (now Wind River Systems) and is available as an informational RFC 2516.

In the world of DSL, PPPoE was commonly understood to be running on top of ATM (or DSL) as the underlying transport, although no such limitation exists in the PPPoE protocol itself. Other usage scenarios are sometimes distinguished by tacking as a suffix another underlying transport. For example, PPPoEoE, when the transport is Ethernet itself, as in the case of Metro Ethernet networks. (In this notation, the original use of PPPoE would be labeled PPPoEoA, although it should not be confused with PPPoA, which is a different encapsulation protocol.)

PPPoE has been described in some books as a “layer 2.5″ protocol, in some rudimentary sense similar to MPLS because it can be used to distinguish different IP flows sharing an Ethernet infrastructure, although the lack of PPPoE switches making routing decision based on PPPoE headers limits applicability in that respect.

Differences between industrial class and SOHO class for Router / Modem

Category : 产品文章, 伊林思产品FAQ, 技术相关

As we know, the devices mainly cover three classes, that is SOHO class, Industrial class and Military class.  Each class has its own application requirement. The SOHO class modem and router don’t meet the requirements of the industrial environment and standard entirely because of it is designed for office automation. Mainly differences are the below,

1. Control
The SOHO class is simple design for internet use. People no need control it very often.
The industrial class is designed mainly for industry applications. People need control it quite often, even 7*24 hours.

2. Stable, reliable and robust
SOHO class features are simply. It is mainly used for internet surfing, which is installed in house. People can check and assist it in time. With cost requirement, SOHO class design and development will not care too much for the stability and reliability. The industrial class cares the stability and reliability very much because it’s mainly installed under people’ touch. In another world, it should be working for 7*24 hours without people assist. So the industrial class must have good reliability, recoverability, and maintainability in the production environment at the same time. It is a guarantee that it will not lead the collapse of applications, operating system even the network when any component failure occurs in a network system.

3. The security issues
Lots of fields exist inflammable, explosive or toxic gases inevitably in the process of industrial production, and there must have some certain explosion-proof technology for the intelligent devices and communication equipment which can ensure the safety of industrial field. It is much more practical to add explosion-proof and explosion-proof measures in the Ethernet system under the condition of current technology, namely the ignition energy which caused by the devices problem will not leak through increasing explosion-proof measures to the Ethernet field devices, which can ensure the safety of running system. For those dangerous situation where is no strict safety requirements, you can not consider complex explosion-proof measures.

The network safety of industrial system is another security issue must be considered at the industrial Ethernet applications. Industrial Ethernet can make the traditional three layers of the network system, namely, information management layer, process monitoring layer and field equipment layer, an organic whole, which make the faster data transfer, higher real-time and it can integrate with the Internet seamlessly, it realizes data sharing and improves the operational efficiency of the factory. But there is a series of network security problems at the same time, industrial network may under the threat of virus infection, hackers and illegal operation.

4. The vehicle power supply issues
The vehicle power supply refers to the cable connected to the field devices not only to transmit data signals, but also provide equipment working power supply on-site. The Ethernet hasn’t considered this issue from the design at the beginning, while there are a lot of bus power supply requirements on the industrial site. Because of the above problems, the ordinary commercial Ethernet cannot be applied to the control of industrial field directly. And the industrial Ethernet is produced to solve these problems.

 

5. Features and performance
The industrial class owns much more features and SOHO class, such as connection alive monitor and keeping, Dual Sim connection, multi-line redundancy, GPS, Serial ports, VPN networks, high gain and special antenna replacement, etc.